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Subordinate-centered communication that outlines actions necessary for subordinates to achieve individual and organizational goals.

Why should counseling lead to achievement of goals?

How is counseling related to leadership?

The Reason for Counseling

To help subordinates develop in order to achieve organizational or individual goals.

– This overriding theme of “subordinate development” includes helping subordinates to improve performance, solve problems or attain goals.

The Leader as a Counselor

Leaders have a responsibility to develop their subordinates.

During counseling, the leader acts primarily as a helper, not a judge.

When should a leader counsel to develop subordinates?

How can a leader be both an evaluator/judge and a helper/counselor?

The Leader as a Counselor

The following qualities help the leader to assume an effective role during counseling:

– Respect for subordinates

– Self and Cultural Awareness

– Credibility

– Empathy

(Two-Way) Communication

Subordinates assume an active role in the counseling session and maintain responsibility for their actions. The following skills assist leaders in subordinate-centered counseling:

– Active Listening

– Responding

– Questioning

Why should the subordinate be active in the session?

Common Counseling Mistakes






Categories of Counseling

Personal – Event Oriented

Reception and Integration – Crisis – Separation

Positive Performance – Promotion Counseling

Referrals – Corrective Training

Performance and Professional Growth


“Pathway to Success”

Developmental Process Based on Potential

Near Term <1 year

Long Term > 2-5 years

Approaches to Counseling




Counseling Process

Identify the need for counseling

Prepare for Counseling

Conduct the Counseling Session


Preparation for Counseling

1. Select a suitable place

2. Schedule the time

3. Notify the subordinate well in advance

4. Organize the information

5. Outline the components of the counseling session

6. Plan a counseling strategy

7. Establish the right atmosphere

Can counseling occur spontaneously without formal preparation?

What is an appropriate time?

What should a leader tell the subordinate?

Preparation for Counseling

1. Select a suitable place

2. Schedule the time

3. Notify the subordinate well in advance

4. Organize the information

5. Outline the components of the counseling session

6. Plan a counseling strategy

7. Establish the right atmosphere

Why should a leader prepare an outline?

What is a counseling strategy?

The Counseling Session

1. Open the session

2. Discuss the issue

3. Develop a plan of action

4. Record and Close the session

(1) Open the Session

State the purpose of the session.

– Establish a subordinate-centered tone.

How does a counselor establish a subordinate centered tone?

Why is it important to state the purpose of the session?

(2) Discuss the Issue

Jointly develop an understanding of the situation.

– Support points with facts or observations.

– Establish relevance between the issue and individual or unit goals.

How does a counselor “jointly develop” an understanding of the situation?

Why is it important to support points with fact or observations?

(3) Develop a Plan of Action

Actions should facilitate the attainment of goals.

– Actions should be specific enough to drive behavior.

– Plan may entail contacting a referral agency.

Why must the plan be a “plan of action”?

When should the plan include a referral?

(4) Record and Close the Session

Summarize the counseling session.

– Discuss implementation of the plan; check for understanding and acceptance.

– Identify leader’s responsibilities.

What happens when a soldier does not accept the plan of action?

What is follow-up and why is it necessary?

What is the leader’s role in implementing the plan?

Assess the Plan of Action

If needed, modify the original plan of action

Provides useful information for future follow-up counseling sessions




Goal Oriented

The Session

Open the session

Discuss the issue

Develop plan of action

Record and Close the session

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