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052-195-3066 (SL3) - Direct Construction of Nonexplosive Obstacles

Standards: Directed the construction of obstacles that were tied to existing or reinforced obstacles to block, channel, or delay the enemy according to the mission brief or intent.

Conditions: Given a mission directive, logistical support for the type of nonexplosive obstacle, squad personnel, organic equipment, and FM 5-34.

Standards: Directed the construction of obstacles that were tied to existing or reinforced obstacles to block, channel, or delay the enemy according to the mission brief or intent.

Performance Steps

1.   Analyze mission requirements using the mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time available, and civilian considerations (METT-TC) factors.  Consider the following-

a. Manpower available.

b. Material available.

c. Time available.

d. Type of transportation.

e. Site selection (take advantage of existing obstacles).

f.  Type of obstacle to be constructed.

2.   Direct the construction of wire obstacles.

Note. When using U-shaped pickets to construct obstacles, ensure the U faces the enemy.

a. Direct the construction of a double-apron 4- and 2-pace fence.  Ensure-

(1)  The fence centerline is laid.

(2)  The long pickets are spaced at 3-meter (4-pace) intervals.

(3)  The anchor pickets are spaced at 1.5-meter (2-pace) intervals each way from the centerline and midway between the long pickets.

(4)  All 12 wires are installed.  Ensure work is done from the enemy side to the friendly side (figure 052-195-3066-1).


Figure 052-195-3066-1.  Double-Apron Fence

Note.  Ensure the soldier is not cut off between the enemy and the fence.

(5)  The wire is tied at the beginning and end of each roll of barbed wire, as a minimum.

(6)  The wires are properly secured and tight.

b. Direct the construction of a triple-standard concertina fence.

(1)  Ensure work is done from the enemy side to the friendly side.

(2)  Direct the installation of an anchor picket (short picket) at each end of the front and back row (2 paces).

(3)  Ensure long pickets are spaced at 3.8-meter (5-pace) intervals (stagger the back row) (figure 052-195-3066-2).


Figure 052-195-3066-2.  Triple-Standard Concertina Fence

Note. Install the pickets in such a manner that the lower notch of the long picket is 4 inches above the ground.

(4)  Direct the installation of concertina wire.  Ensure-

(a)   A roll of concertina is placed at the third picket in the front row and at every fourth picket thereafter (figure 052-195-3066-3).


Figure 052-195-3066-3.  Install Concertina and Horizontal Wire


(b)   The bottom row (concertina wire) is secured with the horizontal wire (barbed wire) (figure 052-195-3066-4).


Figure 052-195-3066-4.  Join Concertina Wire

(c)   The back row (friendly side) is begun once the first team has cleared the head of the fence.

(5)  Direct the installation of the remaining row of concertina wire on top of the first two rows and fasten it securely.

(6)  Ensure the concertina wire is properly tied and all horizontal wire is properly installed.

c. Direct the construction of a four-strand cattle fence.

(1)  Ensure an anchor picket (short picket) is installed at each end of the fence.

(2)  Ensure the long pickets are installed 3 meters apart (figure 052-195-3066-5).


Figure 052-195-3066-5.  Four-Strand Cattle Fence

(3)  Direct the installation of the barbed wire.  Ensure-

(a)   The reel of barbed wire is rolled out.  Ensure that a row of barbed wire is used per strand.

(b)   The wire is tied from the bottom strand and that it is worked upward to the top strand.

(4)  Ensure the wire is taut and tied correctly.

d. Direct the construction of a knife rest.

(1)  Ensure that a knife rest is prepared 3 to 5 meters long (figure 052-195-3066-6).  Ensure-


Figure 052-195-3066-6.  Knife Rest

(a)   The end poles (1.2 meters in height and width) are lashed to form two Xs.

(b)   The center pole is lashed to the two Xs.

(c)   Barbed wire is used to complete the knife rest.

(2)  Ensure the knife rest is secured to the ground.

e. Direct the construction of an 11-row obstacle out of concertina wire.

(1)  Ensure long pickets are installed at 3.8-meter (5-pace) intervals for 11 rows (figure 052-195-3066-7).

 


Figure 052-195-3066-7. Eleven-Row Obstacle

(2)  Direct the placement of concertina wire over the long pickets.

(3)  Ensure the horizontal wire (barbed wire) is anchored to the anchor stakes 1.5 meters (2 paces) from each end of the concertina rows.

(4)  Ensure the horizontal wire is secured over the concertina wire.

(5)  Ensure that a log 20 centimeters in diameter is placed between the fifth and sixth row.

(6)  Ensure the obstacle is no less than 10 meters deep.

3.   Direct the construction of log obstacles.

Note. When constructing a log crib, use only logs with a 20-centimeter diameter minimum.

a. Direct the construction of a triangular log crib (figure 052-195-3066-8).  Ensure-


Figure 052-195-3066-8.  Triangular Log Crib

 

(1)  The vertical postholes are marked and dug 1.5 meters deep.  Ensure one corner of the log crib is facing toward the enemy and four 3-meter posts are used per wall.

(2)  The 12 horizontal logs (four per wall) are cut to roadway width.

(3)  The vertical logs are emplaced and tamped into place.

(4)  The horizontal logs are emplaced and posts are lashed together with wire.

(5)  The interior of the crib is filled with earth material taken from the enemy side of the obstacle.

b. Direct the construction of a rectangular log crib (figure 052-195-3066-9 and table 052-195-3066-1).  Ensure-

 


Figure 052-195-3066-9.  Rectangular Log Crib

Table 052-195-3066-1. Post Requirements
(Post Opposing/Offset Post Designs)

Road Width (m)

 

1.8

2.1 to 3.6

3.9 to 5.4

5.8 to 7.3

 

8

12

16

20

 

2

3

4

5

 

4

6

8

10

 

Note. A rectangular log crib can be emplaced with the post opposing design or the offset-post design.

(1)  The vertical postholes are dug and marked 1.5 meters deep.  Use table 052-195-3066-1 for post requirements.

(2)  The horizontal logs (four per wall) are cut to the roadway width.

(3)  The vertical logs are emplaced 1.8 meters apart and tamped into place.

(4)  The horizontal logs are emplaced and posts, logs, and braces are lashed with wire.

(5)  The interior of the crib is filled with earth material taken from the enemy side of the obstacle.

c. Direct the construction of a log hurdle obstacle (figure 052-195-3066-10).  Ensure-


Figure 052-195-3066-10.  Log Hurdles

Note. Select a site where the log hurdles cannot be readily bypassed.  Hurdles are constructed on the steepest part of a slope.

(1)  Logs are cut 1.8 to 2.4 meters long.

(2)  Three logs 25 centimeters in diameter or one log 45 centimeters in diameter are used.

(3)  Logs are staked firmly in place.  Ensure stakes are no more than 1.5 meters apart.

(4)  The log poles are lashed to the stakes with wire.

(5)  The securing stakes are buried a minimum of 60 centimeters in the ground with 60 centimeters remaining above ground.

d. Direct the construction of a log post obstacle (figure 052-195-3066-11).  Ensure-


Figure 052-195-3066-11.  Log Post Obstacle

(1)  A minimum of four rows of posts are emplaced.

(2)  Posts are cut in varying lengths from 2 to 3 meters.

Note. The diameter of the timber is 40 centimeters minimum.

(3)  Postholes are dug 1.5 meters underground.

(4)  Posts are emplaced at irregular distances of 1 to 2 meters and at irregular heights of 75- to 120-centimeters above ground.  Ensure posts are buried vertically or at a slight angle toward the enemy.

(5)  The barbed wire is attached to posts in an irregular pattern.

4.   Direct the construction of tank ditch obstacles (figure 052-195-3066-12).

 


Figure 052-195-3066-12.  Tank Ditches

a. Direct the construction of a rectangular tank ditch obstacle.  Ensure-

(1)  The T-push method is used with a dozer/dozer, dozer/loader, dozer/armored combat earthmover (ACE), ACE/ACE, or ACE/loader team configuration.

(2)  The tandem method is used with a scraper/scraper, scraper/ACE, or a scraper/dozer team configuration.

(3)  The ditch is dug a minimum of 1.5 meters deep and 3.3 meters wide.

(4)  The berm is placed on the friendly side of the ditch.

b. Direct the construction a triangular tank ditch obstacle.  Ensure-

(1)  The T-push method is used with a dozer/dozer, dozer/loader, dozer/ACE, ACE/ACE, or ACE/loader team configuration.

(2)  The ditch is dug a minimum of 1.5 meters deep and 4 meters wide.

(3)  The spoil is spread on the enemy side of the ditch.

c. Direct the construction a sidehill-cut tank ditch obstacle.  Ensure-

(1)  The T-push method is used with a dozer/dozer, dozer/loader, dozer/ACE, ACE/ACE, or ACE/loader team configuration.

(2)  The one-dozer or ACE method is used.

(3)  The tank ditch is cut a minimum of 1.5 meters deep and 4.5 to 6 meters wide.

(4)  The spoil is spread on the enemy side of the ditch.

5.   Direct the construction of barrier obstacles.

a. Ensure barrier materials are obtained.  Barrier materials include-

(1)  Steel hedgehogs and tetrahedrons (figure 052-195-3066-13).


Figure 052-195-3066-13.  Steel Hedgehog and Tetrahedron

(2)  Concrete cubes and tetrahedrons (figure 052-195-3066-14).


Figure 052-195-3066-14.  Concrete Cubes and Tetrahedron 

(3)  Jersey barriers (figure 052-195-3066-15).


Figure 052-195-3066-15.  Jersey Barrier

b. Ensure barrier materials (figure 052-195-3066-16) are emplaced.


Figure 052-195-3066-16.  Concrete Obstacle Placement

Note. The distance between barriers will vary depending on the type of traffic expected (cars, trucks, or semitrailers).

 

Evaluation Preparation:

Setup: Provide the soldier with the items listed in the conditions. Provide him with a mission brief describing the type of obstacle to be emplaced.

Brief Soldier: Tell the soldier to direct the construction of the obstacle according to the mission brief.

Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1.   Analyzed mission requirements using the METT-TC factors.

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2.   Directed the construction of wire obstacles.

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3.   Directed the construction of log obstacles.

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4.   Directed the construction of tank ditch obstacles.

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5.   Directed the construction of barrier obstacles.

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Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the soldier NO GO if any performance measure is failed. If the soldier fails any performance measure, show him how to do it correctly.

References

 

Required

Related

 

FM 5-34

FM 5-102