You are a leader in a tactical combat
situation. Given the concept of operations
from your higher headquarters, employ your
direct fire weapons as an effective method
of defense against attacking enemy aircraft.
You will use this method in conjunction with
passive air defense techniques and will
provide effective air defense protection
with or without specific supporting air
defense (AD) assets.
Established and directed unit air defense
posture. Ensured 100 percent use of
available passive defense measures. Planned
for employment of all available individual
and crew-served weapons capable of being
directed against enemy air threats. Ensured
hostile targets engaged were destroyed,
neutralized, or suppressed.
1. Prepare and brief unit personnel on each of the
following battle data and information:
Air dimension of the
intelligence preparation of the
battlefield (IPB) process. (Includes
the portion of the IPB process that
provides intelligence data.)
Estimate hostile air
(Briefs analysis data for
Observation and fields
Air avenues of
Air routes of an attacking
2. Brief the rules of engagement (ROE).
Rules of engagement are the
positive and procedural management
Specify the circumstances and
limitations under which your unit
initiates or continues a combat
Right of self-defense.
When under attack, the right
of self-defense takes precedence
over any other established rules and
procedures that normally govern
Specify which detected
targets and under what circumstances
they are considered hostile.
defense warning (ADW).
(Provide status of air
ADW Red. Attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is imminent or in
ADW Yellow. Attack by hostile aircraft or missiles are probable.
ADW White. Attack by hostile aircraft or missiles are improbable.
Weapon control status
Describe the relative degree
in effect under which the fires of
air defense systems are managed:
Weapons Free. Fire at any aircraft not positively identified as friendly.
Weapons Tight. Fire only at aircraft positively identified as hostile.
Weapons Hold. Do not fire except in self-defense or in response to a
Local air defense warning
Provide the LADW status:
Dynamite. Air platforms are inbound or are attacking; response is
Lookout. Air platforms are in the area of interest, but are not
threatening, or they are inbound
with time to react.
Snowman. No air platforms pose a threat at this time.
Method of receiving
directed early warning with or
without an Air and Missile Defense
AMDO disseminates local
air defense warning on supported
Four Hinds heading East at Phase
Without an AMDO, the
unit may monitor the early warning
3. Establish air attack warning systems and include
search and scan techniques.
Establish visual warnings
(hand signal, flag).
warnings (vehicle, horn, whistle,
siren, and voice).
Position air watch
sentries in the unit’s area of
Position air guards in a
Apply search and scan
4. Enforce passive air defense measures.
Note. Passive air
defense measures are all measures,
other than active defense, taken to
minimize the effects of the hostile
air action. Passive defense measures are of two types:
attack avoidance and damage,
limiting measures that include the use
of protective cover, concealment,
camouflage, and deception.
camouflage, and deception.
concealment (hiding, blending, and
Use natural and manmade
materials for camouflage
Damage limiting measures
construction, and use of cover).
protective construction, and cover
Select position(s) that
cannot be seen from the air.
5. Direct engagement of hostile air targets using
combined arms for air defense
Volume and mass fire.
For correct leads, use
football field lengths.
Aiming points for
helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft,
cruise missiles and unmanned aerial
Firing positions for
Select and use natural and
techniques for missile systems.
Preparation: Evaluate this task during a
field exercise, during improved moving
target simulator (IMTS) training, or as part
of lane training. Provide the soldier with
the mission and concept of operations, maps,
and overlays for air intelligence
preparation of the battlefield (IPB)
development and employment of assets. Ensure
sufficient equipment is available for
passive air defense measure implementation.
Provide live air or drone aircraft for
target detection, identification, and
live air, IMTS, or drone aircraft are not
available, aircraft recognition can be
performed using aircraft recognition cards
or other multimedia techniques.
Soldier: Tell the soldier that he is to
plan for and employ all available assets
capable of being directed against enemy air
threats, fully implement passive air defense
measures (in the offense or defense),
communicate air defense warnings and weapons
control status, and destroy, neutralize, or
suppress all enemy air threats.
1. Prepared and briefed unit personnel on the
following battle data and information.
Air dimension of the IPB
Included the portion of the IPB
process that provides intelligence
Estimated hostile air
Observation and fields of
Air avenues of approach;
air routes of an attacking force.
2. Briefed ROE to unit personnel specifying the
circumstances and limitations under
which the unit would initiate or
continue a combat engagement.
Right of self-defense.
When under attack, the right of
self-defense took precedence over any
other established rules and procedures
that normally govern engagements.
target criteria specifying which
targets, when detected, were friendly
Methods of disseminating
early warning information and data.
3. Directed establishment of an air attack warning
air watch sentries.
search and scan procedures.
4. Enforced passive air defense measures using:
Used available concealment
Used natural and manmade
materials for camouflage effectively.
Selected positions with
Used dispersion, protective
construction, and cover effectively.
5. Directed engagements of hostile aircraft using
combined air defense procedures.
Applied proper engagement
Volume and massing fire.
Football field technique.
Ensured proper aiming
points were used for flight directions
of hostile aircraft.
firing positions for small arms.
aircraft engagement techniques for
Guidance: Score the soldier GO if he
passes all performance measures. Score the
soldier NO GO if he fails any performance
measures. If the soldier fails any
performance measures, explain and or show
him what was done wrong and how to perform
the measures correctly.