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441-091-3000 (SL3) - Supervise the Implementation of Air Defense Measures

Standards: Established and directed unit air defense posture. Ensured 100 percent use of available passive defense measures. Planned for employment of all available individual and crew-served weapons capable of being directed against enemy air threats. Ensured hostile targets engaged were destroyed, neutralized, or suppressed.

Conditions:
You are a leader in a tactical combat
situation. Given the concept of operations
from your higher headquarters, employ your
direct fire weapons as an effective method
of defense against attacking enemy aircraft.
You will use this method in conjunction with
passive air defense techniques and will
provide effective air defense protection
with or without specific supporting air
defense (AD) assets.

Standards:
Established and directed unit air defense
posture. Ensured 100 percent use of
available passive defense measures. Planned
for employment of all available individual
and crew-served weapons capable of being
directed against enemy air threats. Ensured
hostile targets engaged were destroyed,
neutralized, or suppressed.

Performance
Steps


1.   Prepare and brief unit personnel on each of the
following battle data and information:

a.
Air dimension of the
intelligence preparation of the
battlefield (IPB) process. (Includes
the portion of the IPB process that
provides intelligence data.)

(1) 
Threat overview.

(2) 
Estimate hostile air
strength.

b.
Terrain analysis. 
(Briefs analysis data for
friendly elements.)

(1) 
Observation and fields
of fire.

(2) 
Air avenues of
approach. 
Air routes of an attacking
force.

2.   Brief the rules of engagement (ROE). 
Rules of engagement are the
positive and procedural management
directives. 
Specify the circumstances and
limitations under which your unit
initiates or continues a combat
engagement.

a.
Right of self-defense. 
When under attack, the right
of self-defense takes precedence
over any other established rules and
procedures that normally govern
engagements.

b.
Hostile criteria. 
Specify which detected
targets and under what circumstances
they are considered hostile.

c.
Air
defense warning (ADW). 
(Provide status of air
defense conditions.)

(1) 
ADW Red.  Attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is imminent or in
progress.

(2) 
ADW Yellow.  Attack by hostile aircraft or missiles are probable.

(3) 
ADW White.  Attack by hostile aircraft or missiles are improbable.

d.
Weapon control status
(WCS). 
Describe the relative degree
in effect under which the fires of
air defense systems are managed:

(1) 
Weapons Free.  Fire at any aircraft not positively identified as friendly.

(2) 
Weapons Tight.  Fire only at aircraft positively identified as hostile.

(3) 
Weapons Hold.  Do not fire except in self-defense or in response to a
formal order.

e.
Local air defense warning
(LADW). 
Provide the LADW status:

(1) 
Dynamite.  Air platforms are inbound or are attacking; response is
immediate.

(2) 
Lookout.  Air platforms are in the area of interest, but are not
threatening, or they are inbound
with time to react.

(3) 
Snowman.  No air platforms pose a threat at this time.

f. 
Method of receiving
directed early warning with or
without an Air and Missile Defense
Officer (AMDO):

(1) 
AMDO disseminates local
air defense warning on supported
unit net. 
("Dynamite! Dynamite!
Four Hinds heading East at Phase
Line Blue.")

(2) 
Without an AMDO, the
unit may monitor the early warning
net.

3.   Establish air attack warning systems and include
search and scan techniques.

a.
Establish visual warnings
(hand signal, flag).

b.
Establish audible
warnings (vehicle, horn, whistle,
siren, and voice).

c.
Position air watch
sentries in the unit’s area of
operation.

d.
Position air guards in a
convoy.

e.
Apply search and scan
techniques.

4.   Enforce passive air defense measures.

Note.  Passive air
defense measures are all measures,
other than active defense, taken to
minimize the effects of the hostile
air action.  Passive defense measures are of two types: 
attack avoidance and damage,
limiting measures that include the use
of protective cover, concealment,
camouflage, and deception.

a.
Attack avoidance
measures. 
Include concealment,
camouflage, and deception.

(1) 
Use available
concealment (hiding, blending, and
disguising).

(2) 
Use natural and manmade
materials for camouflage
effectively.

b.
Damage limiting measures
(dispersion, protective
construction, and use of cover).

(1) 
Use dispersion,
protective construction, and cover
effectively.

(2) 
Select position(s) that
cannot be seen from the air.

5.   Direct engagement of hostile air targets using
combined arms for air defense
procedures.

a.
Volume and mass fire.

b.
For correct leads, use
football field lengths.

c.
Aiming points for
helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft,
cruise missiles and unmanned aerial
vehicles (UAV).

d.
Firing positions for
small arms. 
Select and use natural and
manmade positions.

e.
Aircraft engagement
techniques for missile systems.

Evaluation
Preparation:
Evaluate this task during a
field exercise, during improved moving
target simulator (IMTS) training, or as part
of lane training. Provide the soldier with
the mission and concept of operations, maps,
and overlays for air intelligence
preparation of the battlefield (IPB)
development and employment of assets. Ensure
sufficient equipment is available for
passive air defense measure implementation.
Provide live air or drone aircraft for
target detection, identification, and
engagement.

Note. If
live air, IMTS, or drone aircraft are not
available, aircraft recognition can be
performed using aircraft recognition cards
or other multimedia techniques.

Brief
Soldier:
Tell the soldier that he is to
plan for and employ all available assets
capable of being directed against enemy air
threats, fully implement passive air defense
measures (in the offense or defense),
communicate air defense warnings and weapons
control status, and destroy, neutralize, or
suppress all enemy air threats.

Performance
Measures

GO

NO
GO


1.   Prepared and briefed unit personnel on the
following battle data and information.





a.
Air dimension of the IPB
process. 
Included the portion of the IPB
process that provides intelligence
data.

 


 


(1) 
Threat overview.

 


 


(2) 
Estimated hostile air
strength.

 


 


b.
Terrain
analysis.

 


 


(1) 
Observation and fields of
fire.

 


 


(2) 
Air avenues of approach;
air routes of an attacking force.

 


 


2.   Briefed ROE to unit personnel specifying the
circumstances and limitations under
which the unit would initiate or
continue a combat engagement.





a.
Right of self-defense. 
When under attack, the right of
self-defense took precedence over any
other established rules and procedures
that normally govern engagements.

 


 


b.
Hostile
target criteria specifying which
targets, when detected, were friendly
or hostile.

 


 


c.
ADW
in effect.

 


 


d.
WCS
in effect.

 


 


e.
LADW
in effect.

 


 


f. 
Methods of disseminating
early warning information and data.

 


 


3.   Directed establishment of an air attack warning
system.





a.
Established visual
warnings.

 


 


b.
Established
audible warnings.

 


 


c.
Positioned
air watch sentries.

 


 


d.
Performed
search and scan procedures.

 


 


4.   Enforced passive air defense measures using:





a.
Attack-avoidance measures.

 


 


(1) 
Used concealment
principles.

 


 


(2) 
Used available concealment
.

 


 


(3) 
Used natural and manmade
materials for camouflage effectively.

 


 


b.
Damage
limiting measures.

 


 


(1) 
Selected positions with
natural covering.

 


 


(2) 
Used dispersion, protective
construction, and cover effectively.

 


 


5.   Directed engagements of hostile aircraft using
combined air defense procedures.





a.
Applied proper engagement
procedures.

 


 


(1) 
Volume and massing fire.

 


 


(2) 
Football field technique.

 


 


(3) 
Ensured proper aiming
points were used for flight directions
of hostile aircraft.

 


 


b.
Applied
firing positions for small arms.

 


 


c.
Applied
aircraft engagement techniques for
missile systems.

 


 


Evaluation
Guidance:
Score the soldier GO if he
passes all performance measures. Score the
soldier NO GO if he fails any performance
measures. If the soldier fails any
performance measures, explain and or show
him what was done wrong and how to perform
the measures correctly.

References

 

Required

Related

 

 

FM
5-103

 

 

FM
20-3

 

 

FM
34-130

 

 

FM
44-8

 

 

FM
44-80

 

 

FM
44-100