This website is not affiliated with the U.S. government or military. All proceeds from the operation of this site are donated to veteran and other charities.

AN/PAQ-4 Zeroing Techniques

 
  
1. OVERVIEW.
This appendix is designed to improve zeroing for the
AN/PAQ-4 (A or C models). For a more complete handling
of this subject, contact the 82d Airborne Division.

2. AN
INTRODUCTION TO INFRARED AIMING LIGHTS (IAL).

a. Lasers (light
amplification by simulated emission of radiation) are
used extensively by the U.S. Armed Forces due to their
ability to allow the user to remain undetected by the
naked (unaided) eye. Infrared lasers are used as aiming
and pointing devices.

 

b. The AN/PAQ-4 series
of IALs are battery-powered, light-emitting diode
transmitters which project a narrow beam of infrared
light visible only when seen with image intensification
viewers, such as NVG (e.g., AN/PVS-7 series NVGs). The
projected light beam allows the user to determine exact
aiming points as well as assign directions of fire or
movement and designate targets for others equipped with
NVGs. The aiming light increases the accuracy of direct
firing at night. After being properly mounted and zeroed
to the weapon, and turned ON, the aiming light sends out
the invisible light beam along the line of sight which
allows the user to engage targets successfully.

3. AN/PAQ-4A
AIMING LIGHT
.



Figure 1

 

a.
Characteristics
.
(1)
Weight:
0.9 lbs.
 
(2) Range:
150 meters
 
(3) Power:
2 AA batteries (BA-3058) or 1 Lithium Battery
(BA-5567v/1567v)

 

b.
Components
.

 
(1) Aiming Light
Assembly
 
(2) Mounting Bracket
(or foot) for the M16A2
 
(3) ON/OFF switch
(OFF/ON/Momentary ON)
 
(4) Boresight
adjusters (azimuth and elevation): one for moving beam
up/down and the other for moving the beam left/right.
 
(5) Scattershield:
mounts to front of aiming light that confines the light
in a narrow beam, reducing off-axis radiation.
 
(6) Alignment Mandrel:
used when boresighting
 
(7) Operator’s Manual:
TM 11-5855-297-12&

 

c.
Employment Considerations.
The aiming
light is highly accurate for short ranges
(out to approximately 100m)
when zeroed
properly, using the ARI dry or live-fire zeroing
techniques. The zeroing procedure in the technical
manual (TM) does not work very well and leaves you with
one aiming light not zeroed. Remember, the
aiming light can be seen by anyone equipped with NVG,
friendly or enemy.

4. MOUNT AND
OPERATE THE AN/PAQ-4A.

 

a. The AN/PAQ-4A can
be mounted on the following weapons/weapon systems:
 
(1) M16A1/2 rifle (to
include with M203 grenade launcher attached)
 
(2) M60 machine gun
 
(3) M4 carbine
 
(4) M249 squad
automatic rifle

 

b. Mounting and
operating procedures are covered in the Operator’s
Manual (TM 11-5855-297-12& Section III).

5. ZERO
AN/PAQ-4A USING THE ARI DRY-FIRE PROCEDURES.

 

a.
Procedures for Zeroing.
These procedures
make three critical assumptions. First that the firer
has a good daytime zero with the iron sights. Second,
the initial aiming light adjustments have been made so
that the firer’s bullets are "on paper" at 25 meters at
night. Third, the firer’s NVG are adjusted for best
visual acuity. All procedures can be implemented with
materials readily available within a unit.

 

b.
Daylight Zero of Rifles.
Any rifle
intended for night-time zeroing should also be properly
zeroed for daytime firing. In the daylight, zero the
M16A2 rifle for 300 meters using the standard 25-meter
zeroing procedure (rear sight set to the 300 meter
setting plus one click up toward 400 while zeroing). Use
this setting for all-25 meter firing. Reference Task No.
071-311-2030 Zero an M16A2 rifle, STP 21-1-SMCT.

 

c. Zero of
the AN/PAQ-4A for Night-Time Firing.
This
zeroing procedure involves aiming the iron sights of
your daytime zeroed M16A2 rifle at the center of a
specially marked zeroing target (placed eight M16A2
rifle lengths, 26 feet-4 inches, in front of the muzzle
of the rifle) and then adjusting the AN/PAQ-4A aiming
light beam to a designated spot that will result in a
100-meter aim light zero. The zero will make the aiming
light spot parallel to the strike of the round at 100
meters. It is a nonfiring process so it can be done
indoors or outdoors, from subdued light conditions to
fully dark. All that is needed is about 30 feet of
space.

 

(1) Use the specially
designed AN/PAQ-4A "ARI DRY-FIRE ZERO" target on which a
white dot is marked 9 mm below and 41 mm left of
center mass of the target
(See Figure 2). (Also
see Chapter 4, Own The Night Individual Training
Package, for the full-sized reproducible copy of the ARI
target). This is the target to use during the zeroing
process. Field expedient methods of zeroing the
AN/PAQ-4A will be covered at the end of this section.



Figure 2

 

(2) Locate an area
with subdued lighting that has a vertical surface (e.g.,
wall, tree) on which you can attach the 25-meter target.
Then measure a distance of 26′ 4" (or eight M16A2 rifle
lengths) from that vertical surface to the muzzle of
your M16A2 rifle. Set up a supported aiming position so
that you can hold the rifle very steady while carrying
out the AN/PAQ-4A spot adjustment procedure. As soon as
it is dim enough for your buddy to see the laser spot
clearly with NVG while standing near the target, you can
perform the night-time zero.

 

(3) The AN/PAQ-4A
zeroing procedure will be easier if two soldiers work
together. Be sure the rifle is clear and on safe. The
shooter, who has daylight-zeroed his weapon, gets into a
very steady supported position and lines up his iron
sights at center mass on the dry-fire zeroing target. Be
sure the rifle is set for 300 meter use (the 3 setting
on the rear sight). The buddy will adjust the AN/PAQ-4A
knobs to move the spot until it is exactly on top of the
white dot at lower left of the target. If it is too dark
to see through the iron sights, you can use a
flashlight(s) to illuminate the target and perhaps the
sights, if necessary.

 

(4) The buddy doing
the beam spot adjustment uses his NVG to see the beam
spot. The buddy should try the goggles with and without
the pinhole cap on to determine which gives the clearest
view of the spot while standing close to the target.

 

(5) The buddy should
use the "screw analogy" to adjust the beam. The top knob
on the AN/PAQ-4A adjusts the spot up and down. Using the
screw analogy, if the top knob were a screw, turning it
clockwise would cause it to screw down. Therefore,
turning the knob clockwise will adjust the spot down.
Likewise, turning a screw counter-clockwise would cause
the screw to come up and out of the hole, so the top
knob turned counter-clockwise will cause the beam spot
to go up. The knob on the left side of the AN/PAQ-4A
adjusts the spot left and right. If the knob were a
screw, turning it clockwise would cause it to screw in
(go to the right). So, turning the knob clockwise will
cause the beam spot to move to the right (and
counter-clockwise — to the left). If you get confused,
think what a screw would do and you will know which way
to turn either knob to move the spot where you want
(i.e., clockwise = down or into the
screw hole {down and right}; counter clockwise
= up or out of the screw hole {up and left}).

 

(6) In adjusting the
beam, it works well to move back and forth to the target
so you can see the beam spot location very clearly. Make
the necessary adjustments while the shooter is relaxing,
then have the shooter get a good center mass aim again
and recheck the accuracy of the spot placement (on the
white dot). This zeroing process takes only about 5 to
10 minutes.

 

(7) You may find it
beneficial to have a third person close to the target
using goggles to check the accuracy of the aiming light
beam on the dry-fire target. Then the buddy can stand
next to the shooter, and simply adjust the aiming light
knob in accordance with the directions given by the
individual at the dry-fire target.

 

d. Field
Expedient Dry-Fire Method.
To do a
field-expedient method to dry-fire zero the AN/PAQ-4A
aiming light, all a leader needs to remember is the
eight M16A2 lengths away, the 41 mm left and 9 mm down
of center mass of a target to zero on. Since most of us
do not carry a ruler, we have other means to make these
measurements. Using a MRE box, mark a cross the length
of a protractor or the straight edge of the lensatic
compass on the box. Using the 1:50,000 meter scale on
the protractor (lensatic compass scale is the same),
mark 2,100 meters to the left of the cross intersection
and 500 meters down for where the white dot goes (20 mm
is equal to 1,000 meters on the 1:50,000 scale on the
protractor). To help aim center mass with the iron
sights, blacken four squares 1,000 meters above and
below the intersection and 1,500 meters left and right
of the intersection using the 1:50,000 meter scale.

 

e.
Dry-Fire Zero Summary Checklist
.
(1) Zero your iron
sights for 300 meters.
(2) Set the sights of
your daylight-zeroed rifle to 300 meters.
(3) Use the AN/PAQ-4A
"ARI DRY-FIRE ZERO" target or the field-expedient
method.
(4) Be certain your
rifle is cleared and on safe.
(5) With a steady
supported position, aim your iron sights exactly center
mass from 26′ 4" away (eight M16A2 rifle lengths).
(6) Your buddy wearing
NVG adjusts your laser beam spot until it covers the
white dot on the target. Be sure the goggles are
properly adjusted for clear vision.
(7) If necessary, a
third individual with goggles can be positioned near the
target to determine where the beam of the aiming light
falls. He can call out needed adjustments to the firer’s
buddy.
(8) The buddy uses the
"screw analogy" to adjust the knobs.
(9) With this ARI
dry-fire zero procedure, you should hit targets at 100
meters and perhaps out to 200 or 300 meters.

6. AN/PAQ-4C
AIMING LIGHT.



Figure 3

a.
Characteristics.

 
(1) Weight:
0.8 lbs.
 
(2) Range:
600 meters
 
(3) Power:
Two AA batteries (BA-3058)

 

b.
Components
.

 
(1) Aiming Light
Assembly
 
(2) Mounting Bracket
for the M16A2 and thumbscrew
 
(3) ON/OFF switch
(five-position switch)
 
(4) Boresight
adjusters (azimuth and elevation) – one for moving beam
up/down and the other for moving the beam left/right.
 
(5) Optical Baffle –
mounts to front of aiming light that confines the light
in a narrow beam, reducing off-axis radiation.
 
(6) Cable Switch
 
(7) Operator’s Manual
– TM 11-5855-301-12&

 

c.
Employment Considerations.
The aiming
light is highly accurate for medium to long
ranges (out to approximately 300m)
when
zeroed properly, using the ARI dry or live-fire zeroing
techniques. The zeroing procedure in the technical
manual (TM) does not work very well and leaves you with
one aiming light not zeroed.

Remember, the aiming light can be
seen by anyone equipped with NVG, friendly or enemy.

7. MOUNT AND
OPERATE THE AN/PAQ-4C.

 

a. The
AN/PAQ-4C can be mounted on the following weapons/weapon
systems:
 
(1) M16A1/2 rifle (to
include with M203 grenade launcher attached).
 
(2) M60 machine gun.
 
(3) M4 carbine.
 
(4) M249 squad
automatic rifle.
 
(5) M2 machine gun.

 

b. Mounting and
operating procedures are covered in the Operator’s
Manual (TM 11-5855-301-12& Section III.

8. ZERO
AN/PAQ-4C USING THE ARI DRY-FIRE PROCEDURES.

 

a.
Procedures for Zeroing.
These procedures
make three critical assumptions. First, the firer has a
good daytime zero with the iron sights. Second, the
initial aiming light adjustments have been made so that
the firer’s bullets are "on paper" at 25 meters at
night. Third, the firer’s NVG are adjusted for best
visual acuity. All procedures can be implemented with
materials readily available within a unit.

 

b.
Daylight Zero of Rifles.
Any rifle
intended for night-time zeroing should also be properly
zeroed for daytime firing. In the daylight, zero the
M16A2 rifle for 300 meters using the standard 25-meter
zeroing procedure (rear sight set to the 300-meter
setting plus one clickup toward 400 while zeroing). Use
this setting for all 25-meter firing. Reference Task No.
071-311-2030 Zero an M16A2 rifle, STP 21-1-SMCT.

 

c. Zero of
the AN/PAQ-4C for Night-Time Firing.
This
zeroing procedure involves aiming the iron sights of
your daytime zeroed M16A2 rifle at the center of a
specially marked zeroing target (placed eight M16A2
rifle lengths, 26 feet-four inches, in front of the
muzzle of the rifle) and then adjusting the AN/PAQ-4C
aiming light beam to a designated spot that will result
in a 250-meter aim light zero. The zero will make the
aiming light spot parallel to the strike of the round at
250 meters. It is a nonfiring process so it can be done
indoors or outdoors, from subdued light conditions to
fully dark. All that is needed is about 30 feet of
space.
 
(1) Use the specially
designed AN/PAQ-4C "ARI DRY-FIRE ZERO" target on which a
white dot is marked 27 mm below and 17 mm left
of center mass of the target
(See Figure 4
below. See Chapter 4 of the 82d Abn Div OTN Individual
Training Package for a full-sized reproducible copy of
the ARI). This is the target to use during the zeroing
process. Field expedient methods of zeroing the
AN/PAQ-4C will be covered at the end of this section.



Figure 4

 

(2) Locate an area
with subdued lighting that has a vertical surface (e.g.,
wall, tree) on which you can attach the 25-meter target.
Then measure a distance of 26′ 4" (eight M16A2 rifle
lengths) from that vertical surface to the muzzle of
your M16A2 rifle. Set up a supported aiming position so
that you can hold the rifle very steady while carrying
out the AN/PAQ-4C spot adjustment procedure. As soon as
it is dim enough for your buddy to see the laser spot
clearly with NVG while standing near the target, you can
perform the night-time zero.

 

(3) The AN/PAQ-4C
zeroing procedure will be easier if two soldiers work
together. Be sure the rifle is clear and on safe. The
shooter, who has daylight-zeroed his weapon, gets into a
very steady supported position and lines up his iron
sights at center mass on the dry-fire zeroing target. Be
sure the rifle is set for 300 meter use (the 3 setting
on the rear sight). The buddy will adjust the AN/PAQ-4C
knobs to move the spot until it is exactly on top of the
white dot at lower left of the target. If it is too dark
to see through the iron sights, you can use a
flashlight(s) to illuminate the target and perhaps the
sights, if necessary.

 

(4) The buddy doing
the beam spot adjustment uses his NVG to see the beam
spot. The buddy should try the goggles with and without
the pinhole cap on to determine which gives the clearest
view of the spot while standing close to the target.

 

(5) The buddy
should use the "screw analogy" to adjust the beam. The
top knob on the AN/PAQ-4C adjusts the spot up and down.
Using the screw analogy, if the top knob were a screw,
turning it clockwise would cause it to screw down.
Therefore, turning the knob clockwise will adjust the
spot down. Likewise, turning a screw counter-clockwise
would cause the screw to come up and out of the hole, so
the top knob turned counter-clockwise will cause the
beam spot to go up. The knob on the left side of the
AN/PAQ-4C adjusts the spot left and right. If the knob
were a screw, turning it clockwise would cause it to
screw in (go to the right). So, turning the knob
clockwise will cause the beam spot to move to the right
(and counter-clockwise — to the left). If you get
confused, think what a screw would do and you will know
which way to turn either knob to move the spot where you
want (i.e., clockwise = down or into
the screw hole {down and right};
counter-clockwise
= up or out of the screw hole

{up and left}).

 

(6) In adjusting the
beam, it works well to move back and forth to the target
so you can see the beam spot location very clearly. Make
the necessary adjustments while the shooter is relaxing,
then have the shooter get a good center mass aim again
and recheck the accuracy of the spot placement (on the
white dot). This zeroing process takes only about 5 to
10 minutes.

 

(7) You may find it
beneficial to have a third person close to the target
using goggles to check the accuracy of the aiming light
beam on the dry-fire target. Then the buddy can stand
next to the shooter, and simply adjust the aiming light
knob in accordance with the directions given by the
individual at the dry-fire target.

d. Field
Expedient Dry-Fire Method.
To do a field
expedient method to dry-fire zero the AN/PAQ-4C aiming
light, all a leader needs to remember is the eight M16A2
lengths away, the 17 mm left and 27 mm down of center
mass of a target to zero on. Since most of us do not
carry a ruler, we have other means to make these
measurements. Using a MRE box, mark a cross the length
of a protractor or the straight edge of the lensatic
compass on the box. Using the 1:50,000 meter scale on
the protractor (lensatic compass scale is the same),
mark 2,100 meters to the left of the cross intersection
and 500 meters down for where the white dot goes (20 mm
is equal to 1,000 meters on the 1:50,000 scale on the
protractor). To help aim center mass with the iron
sights, blacken four squares 1,000 meters above and
below the intersection and 1,500 meters left and right
of the intersection using the 1:50,000 meter scale.

 

e.
Dry-Fire Zero Summary Checklist.

 
(1) Zero your iron
sights for 300 meters.
 
(2) Set the sights of
your daylight-zeroed rifle to 300 meters.
 
(3) Use the AN/PAQ-4C
"ARI DRY-FIRE ZERO" target or the field expedient
method.
 
(4) Be certain your
rifle is cleared and on safe.
 
(5) With a steady
supported position, aim your iron sights exactly center
mass from 26′ 4" away (eight M16A2 rifle lengths).
 
(6) Your buddy wearing
NVG adjusts your laser beam spot until it covers the
white dot on the target. Be sure the goggles are
properly adjusted for clear vision.
 
(7) If necessary, a
third individual with goggles can be positioned near the
target to determine where the beam of the aiming light
falls. He can call out needed adjustments to the firer’s
buddy.
 
(8) The buddy uses the
"screw analogy" to adjust the knobs.
 
(9) With this ARI
dry-fire zero procedure, you should hit targets at 100
meters and perhaps out to 200 or 300 meters.

9.
ZERO AN/PAQ-4A AND AN/PAQ-4C USING THE ARI LIVE-FIRE
PROCEDURE.

a.
Preparation for Zeroing.

 
(1) Modify
the 25-meter zero target.
This is the
first step in the live-fire zero designed to help the
firer determine the center of target mass and maintain a
consistent aim point when zeroing. Using the tan side of
a cardboard E-silhouette, stripe the full length and
width of the cardboard with 3/4-inch black electrical
tape. These stripes should divide the E-silhouette in
half, vertically and horizontally. Center and staple the
25-meter zero target at the intersection of these black
stripes. The zero target can be removed from the
E-silhouette and replaced as needed. See Figure 5 for
this target configuration.



Figure 5

 

(2)
Marking 25-meter zero target for bullet impact.

 
(a) AN/PAQ-4A.
When zeroing the aiming light, the firer points
the aiming light at the center mass of the 25-meter zero
target silhouette. Bullets must hit the target at a
"unique impact point." Aiming light adjustments are made
until the bullets are centered over this unique impact
point. This point for the AN/PAQ-4A is at the
intersection of line 9 right and line 3 down (3.1
centimeters right and 2.8 centimeters down from the
center of the target) on the 25-meter zero target for
the M16A2. See Figure 6.



Figure 6

 

(b) AN/PAQ-4C.
When zeroing the aiming light, the firer points the
aiming light at the center mass of the 25-meter zero
target silhouette. Bullets must hit the target at a
"unique impact point." Aiming light adjustments are made
until the bullets are centered over this unique impact
point. This point for the AN/PAQ-4C is in the "box"
bracketed by lines 3 and 6 right and lines 0 and 1 up
(1.55 centimeters right and .45 centimeters above the
center of the target) on the 25-meter zero target for
the M16A2. See Figure 7.



Figure 7

 

(3)
Shot-group Size.
The 4 centimeter circle
that is centered on the target is not where the impact
of the bullets is impacting (remember you are centering
the aiming light beam on this). So this circle needs to
be centered over the unique point (intersection of line
9 right and line 3 down). Firers are not as precise at
night. Research has shown that the 4 centimeter circle
is not a realistic standard for night firing, given the
reduced visual acuity at night through goggles and the
difficulties in aiming consistently. A 5.5 centimeter
circle is better. See Figure 8. (See Chapter 4 of the
82d Abn Div OTN Individual Training Package for a
full-sized reproducible copy.) This circle can either be
transferred directly onto the target, centered over the
"unique impact point," or a transparent training aid
with a black 5.5 centimeter circle can be used.



Figure 8

 

(4) Ruler
for aiming light adjustments.
The next
step is to use a 12-inch ruler for determining the
number of aiming light click adjustments for windage and
elevation. The vertical and horizontal lines
on the M16A2 zero target cannot be used.

They do not correspond to the click size for the aiming
light. Therefore, these lines cannot be used to
determine the number of clicks to adjust the aiming
light up or down and right or left. When zeroing the
AN/PAQ-4A,
1/4" (.64 cm) on the ruler is equal
to 1 click at 25 meters on the aiming light
adjustment knobs, or 1" at 100 meters.

When zeroing the AN/PAQ-4C, 4/10" (1
cm) on the ruler is equal to 1 click at 25
meters on the aiming light adjustment knobs, or 1.6" at
100 meters.
Use the ruler to measure the
horizontal and vertical distance from the unique impact
point to the center of the shot group. During zeroing,
place these rulers at each 25-meter target location. See
Figure 9 (Not to scale!).



Figure 9

 

(5) Aiming
light knob adjustments
.
The last step in
preparation for zeroing is to make a training aid for
showing which direction to turn the aiming light knobs
to adjust bullets on the bullet impact point. Experience
has shown that the markings on the aiming light knobs
can be misinterpreted. Bullets can suddenly go off the
zero target, off the E-silhouette, or in the wrong
direction because the aiming light was adjusted
incorrectly. A training aid shown in Figure 10 helps to
correct this problem.



Figure 10

 

b. Zeroing
Procedures.

 
(1)
Standard Army Flashlight to light the target.

The flashlight helps to diffuse the bloom of the aiming
light in the goggles and provides a more definitive aim
point. Place the flashlight at the firer’s position in a
V-notched stake. The flashlight can be pointed directly
at center mass of the target or slightly below the
target, according to the firer’s preference. If the
amount of ambient light in the night sky is high, a
flashlight may not be needed.

 

(2) Fire two,
three-round shot groups before making any aiming light
adjustments. This will provide a much better indication
of the firer’s aim point than a single three-round shot
group. This procedure will avoid making premature
adjustments and "chasing bullets" in the dark.
Triangulate and number each shot group. Determine aiming
light click adjustments from center mass of the two shot
groups. The goal is to get the shot group within the 5.5
centimeter circle that has either been drawn on the zero
target or the transparency is used over the center mass
target. Use the aiming light ruler you made up to
determine the number of clicks in windage and elevation
required to move the strike of the bullet to the desired
impact point. Use center mass of the shot group for
these measurements. Check the knob adjustment guide
to ensure adjustments are made in the correct direction.

 

c.
Live-fire Zeroing Summary Checklist
.

 
(1) Striped
E-silhouette on the tan side.
 
(2) Center the
25-meter zero target (that has the offset marked bullet
impact point) on the stripes.
 
(3) Place 12-inch
ruler and shot group transparency (if not already marked
on zero target) at each 25-meter target location.
 
(4) Place the aiming
light knob adjustment guide at each firer’s position.
 
(5) Shine flashlight
on 25-meter target from firer’s position.
 
(6) Fire and mark two,
three-round shot groups before the first aiming light
adjustment.
 
(7) Use the aiming
light ruler to determine number of clicks for
adjustments and transparency to evaluate shot group
size.
 
(8) Check the knob
adjustment guide for correct adjustments.
 
(9) When finished
zeroing (usually 12 rounds), the AN/PAQ-4A is zeroed for
100 meters and the AN/PAQ-4C is zeroed for 250 meters.

 

Available Subcategories :