vaginal bleeding that often is brownish; pain in the
lower abdomen, often on one side, and can be
followed by severe pelvic pain; shoulder pain;
faintness or dizziness; nausea or vomiting.
Ectopic pregnancy (the
fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus,
usually in the fallopian tube).
Blood tests; vaginal or
abdominal ultrasound exam (screening that uses
high-frequency sound waves to form pictures of the
fetus on a computer screen); laparoscopy (surgery to
view the abdominal organs directly with a viewing
Because the embryo of an
ectopic pregnancy cannot survive, it is removed
surgically; or the woman is treated with a cancer
drug, methotrexate, which dissolves the pregnancy.
Extreme thirst, hunger, or fatigue (but
usually no symptoms). Also, a blood sugar value of
140 mg/DL or greater on a diabetes test.
Gestational diabetes (a form of diabetes that
usually occurs in the second half of pregnancy).
Blood test one hour after drinking a glucose
(form of sugar) drink.
Most women can control their blood sugar
levels with diet and exercise. Some women with
gestational diabetes or women who had diabetes
before pregnancy need shots of insulin to keep blood
sugar levels under control.
Flu-like symptoms like
mild fever, headache, muscle aches and tiredness;
loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea;
dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements; stomach
pain; skin and whites of eyes turning yellow
(jaundice); liver problems. Also often no symptoms.
Hepatitis B (can be
passed on to the baby).
Within 12 hours of
birth, your baby will need a shot called HBIG, along
with the first Hepatitis B shot.
Often no symptoms, but can include: small
blisters or warts in the genital area; fever;
fatigue; aches and pains; vaginal discharge
(yellowish, bloody, green, gray, or thick and white
like cottage cheese, or with a strong odor); burning
or pain when urinating; itching around genital area;
itching or burning in vagina; pain in legs or
buttocks; pain during sex; frequent yeast
infections; skin rash
HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases
(can be passed on to the baby).
Blood test. Physical exam to look for
symptoms in the throat, anus, or genital area.
Visual exam to inspect skin for rashes, growths or
sores, especially the area around the genitals.
Pelvic exam to look at the inside of the vagina
(birth canal) and cervix (opening to the uterus, or
womb) and to feel internal organs for any
inflammation or growths. Taking a sample of fluid or
tissue from the vaginal, anal or genital area to
look for the presence of virus.
Antiviral drugs; possible cesarean delivery.
Flu-like illness with
fever, muscle aches, chills, and sometimes diarrhea
or nausea that can progress to severe headache and
from the bacterium listeria monocytogenes, which can
be found in soft cheeses and ready-to-eat deli
prevent infection in the baby).
Mild flu-like symptoms, or possibly no
Toxoplasmosis (parasitic infection that can
be passed on to the baby, which can be contracted
from cat feces or soil, or from eating raw or
undercooked meat that contains the parasite).
Blood test. If the mother is infected, the
fetus can be tested through amniocentesis (a test on
the fluid around the baby, to diagnose certain birth
defects) and ultrasound.
If fetus not yet infected, mother can be
given an antibiotic, spiramycin (to help reduce
severity of symptoms in the newborn). If the fetus
is suspected of being infected, the mother can be
given two medications, pyrimethamine and
sulfadiazine. Infected babies are treated at birth
and through the first year of life with these
Pain or burning when
urinating; pain in lower pelvis, lower back, stomach
or side; shaking, chills; fever; sweats; nausea,
vomiting; frequent or uncontrollable urge to
urinate; strong-smelling urine; change in amount of
urine; blood or pus in urine; pain during sex
Urinary tract infection
(if left untreated, can travel to kidneys, which can
cause premature, or early, labor).
Antibiotics, usually 3
to 7 day course of amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin, or
Painless vaginal bleeding during the second
or third trimester. In many cases, no symptoms.
Placenta previa (the placenta, or the
temporary organ joining the mother and fetus, covers
part or all of the cervix and can cause severe
bleeding usually toward the end of the second
trimester or later).
An ultrasound exam.
If diagnosed after the 20th week of
pregnancy, but with no bleeding, requires to cut
back on activity level and increase bed rest. If
bleeding is heavy, requires hospitalization until
mother and baby are stable. If the bleeding stops or
is light, requires continued bed rest until baby is
ready for delivery. If bleeding doesn't stop or if
pre-term labor starts, baby will be delivered by
Vaginal bleeding during
the second half of pregnancy; cramping, abdominal
pain, and uterine tenderness.
Placental abruption (a
condition in which the placenta separates from the
uterine wall before delivery, depriving the fetus of
An ultrasound exam.
When the separation is
minor, bed rest for a few days usually stops the
bleeding. Moderate cases may require complete bed
rest. Severe cases (when more than half of the
placenta separates) can require immediate medical
attention and delivery of the baby.
Fetus stops moving around and kicking. If,
after 26 weeks of pregnancy, you count fewer than 10
kicks in a day, or if the baby is moving a lot less
than usual, see your health care provider right
Baby possibly in distress, potential risk of
A nonstress test (NST) (measures the response
of the baby's heart rate to each movement the baby
makes as reported by mother or seen by a health care
provider on an ultrasound screen); contraction
stress test (usually ordered if the nonstress test
shows a problem - stimulates the uterus to contract
with the drug pitocin to look at the effect of
contractions on the baby's heart rate); biophysical
profile (BPP) (a combination of the NST and an exam
of the baby's breathing, body movement, muscle tone,
and amount of amniotic fluid).
Treatment depends on results of tests. If a
test suggests a problem, this does not always mean
the baby is in trouble. It may only mean that the
mother needs special care until the baby is
delivered. This can include a wide variety of things
(such as bed rest and further monitoring) depending
on the mother's condition.
High blood pressure
(usually around 140/90); protein in the urine;
swelling of the hands and face; sudden weight gain
(1 pound a day or more); blurred vision; severe
headaches, dizziness; intense stomach pain
blood pressure (preeclampsia, also called toxemia).
Usually occurs after about 30 weeks of pregnancy.
Blood pressure test;
urine test; evaluation by a health care provider.
The only cure is
delivery, which may not be best for the baby. Labor
will probably be induced if condition is mild and
woman is near term (37 to 40 weeks of pregnancy). If
a woman is not yet ready for labor, her provider may
monitor her and her baby closely. May require bed
rest at home or in hospital, until blood pressure
stabilizes or until delivery.
Contractions, either painful or painless,
anytime during pregnancy, that occur more than four
times an hour, or are less than 15 minutes apart;
menstrual like cramps that come and go; abdominal
cramps with or without diarrhea; dull backache that
may radiate around to the abdomen; increase in or
change in color in vaginal discharge; constant or
intermittent pelvic pressure
Early or pre-term labor (labor occurring
after 20 weeks, but before 37 completed weeks of
Monitoring of uterine contractions by wearing
an elastic belt around waist that holds a transducer
or small pressure-sensitive recorder. Can be worn at
the health care provider's office, hospital, or
Lie down with feet elevated; drink 2 or 3
glasses of water or juice. If symptoms do not
subside within one hour, contact health care
provider. May require medications called tocolytics
or magnesium sulfate to stop contractions.
Intense feelings of
sadness, guilt, despair, helplessness, anxiety,
irritability, which may disrupt your ability to
function; appetite changes; thoughts of self-harm or
harming your baby; "baby blues" haven't gone away
after 2 weeks.
(a serious kind of depression that needs medical
attention and treatment).
Evaluation by a health
Can be successfully
treated in most cases with antidepressant
medication, psychotherapy, participation in a
support group, or a combination of these treatments.
Soreness or a lump in the breast accompanied
by a fever and/or flu-like symptoms; possibly nausea
and vomiting; yellowish discharge from the nipple;
breasts feel warm or hot to the touch; pus or blood
in the milk; red streaks near the area; symptoms
could come on severely and suddenly.
Breast infection (mastitis).
Evaluation by a health care provider.
If symptoms are not relieved within 24 hours
of the following steps, see a health care provider
(you may need an antibiotic). Relieve soreness by
applying heat (heating pad or small hot-water
bottle) to the sore area. Massage the area, starting
behind the sore spot. Use your fingers in a circular
motion and massage toward the nipple. Breastfeed
often on the affected side. Rest. Wear a
well-fitting supportive bra that is not too tight.
A low-grade fever and
tiredness followed by a facial rash that looks like
"slapped cheeks." The rash also can look lace-like
and be on the trunk, legs, and arms. Some adults do
not have the rash, but may have painful and swollen
A viral infection called
fifth disease, caused by the human
parvovirus B19. Many women of childbearing age are
immune to this virus, and most women who are
infected during pregnancy will not have serious
problems as a result. But, there is a small danger
that the virus can infect the fetus in some women.
This raises the risk of
miscarriage within the first 20 weeks of
pregnancy. In women who have problems with their
immune systems or with red blood cell disorders,
such as sickle-cell disease, infection can cause
Based on appearance of
the rash. A specific blood test can be done to
No specific treatment,
blood transfusions that might be needed for
people who have problems with their immune systems
or with red blood cell disorders. There is no
vaccine to help prevent infection with this virus.