This website is not affiliated with the U.S. government or military. All proceeds from the operation of this site are donated to veteran and other charities.

081-831-1000 (SL1) - Evaluate a Casualty

Standards: Evaluated the casualty following the correct sequence. All injuries and/or conditions were identified. The casualty was immobilized if a neck or back injury was suspected.

Conditions:
You have a casualty who has signs and/or
symptoms of an injury.

Standards:
Evaluated the casualty following the correct
sequence. 
All injuries and/or conditions were
identified. 
The casualty was immobilized if a
neck or back injury was suspected.

Performance
Steps

Note. 
When evaluating and/or treating
a casualty, seek medical aid as soon
as possible.  Do not stop treatment, but, if the situation allows, send
another person to find medical aid.

WARNING

If
there are signs of chemical or
biological agent poisoning,
immediately mask the casualty. 
If it is not nerve agent
poisoning, decontaminate exposed skin
and gross contamination (large wet or
oily spots) of the clothing or
overgarments. 
If nerve agent poisoning,
administer the antidote before
decontamination. 
(See Task 081-831-1044.)

WARNING

 If
a broken neck or back is suspected, do
not move the casualty unless to save
his life

1.   Check for responsiveness.

a.
Ask in a loud, but calm
voice, "Are you okay?"

b.
Gently shake or tap the
casualty on the shoulder.

c.
Watch for a response. 
If the casualty does not
respond, go to step 2.

d.
If the casualty is
conscious, ask where he feels
different than usual or where it
hurts.  Go to step 3.  If
the casualty is conscious but is
choking and cannot talk, stop the
evaluation and begin treatment. 
(See Task 081-831-1003.)

2.   Check for breathing.

a.
Look for rise and fall of
the casualty’s chest.

b.
Listen for breathing by
placing your ear about one inch
above the casualty’s mouth and nose.

c.
Feel for breathing by
placing your hand or cheek about 1
inch above the casualty’s mouth and
nose. 
If the casualty is not
breathing, stop the evaluation and
begin treatment. 
(See Task 081-831-1042.)

Note.  Check for
pulse during mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation, as necessary.

3.   Check for bleeding.

WARNING

In
a chemically contaminated area, do not
expose the wound(s)

a.
Look for spurts of blood
or blood-soaked clothes.

b.
Look for entry and exit
wounds.

c.
If bleeding is present,
stop the evaluation and begin
treatment as appropriate.

(1) 
Arm or leg wound. 
(See Task 081-831-1032.)

(2) 
Partial or complete
amputation. 
(See Task 081-831-1032.)

(3) 
Open head wound. 
(See Task 081-831-1033.)

(4) 
Open abdominal wound. 
(See Task 081-831-1025.)

(5) 
Open chest wound. (See
Task 081-831-1026.)

4.   Check for shock.

a.
Look for any of the
following signs and/or symptoms.

(1) 
Sweaty but cool skin
(clammy skin).

(2) 
Paleness of skin.

(3) 
Restlessness or
nervousness.

(4) 
Thirst.

(5) 
Loss of blood
(bleeding).

(6) 
Confusion.

(7) 
Faster than normal
breathing rate.

(8) 
Blotchy or bluish skin,
especially around the mouth.

(9) 
Nausea and/or vomiting.

b.
If signs or symptoms of
shock are present, stop the
evaluation and begin treatment.  (See Task 081-831-1005.)

WARNING

Leg
fractures must be splinted before
elevating the legs for shock. 
(See Task 081-831-1034.)

5.   Check for fractures.

a.
Look for the following
signs and symptoms of a back or neck
injury:

(1) 
Pain or tenderness of
the neck or back area.

(2) 
Cuts or bruises in the
neck and back area.

(3) 
Inability of the
casualty to move (paralysis or
numbness).

(a)  
Ask about the ability
to move (paralysis).

(b)  
Touch the casualty’s
arms and legs; ask whether he
can feel your hand (numbness).

(4) 
Unusual body or limb
position.

WARNING

Unless
there is immediate life-threatening
danger, do not move a casualty whom
you suspect has a back or neck injury

b.
Immobilize any casualty
suspected of having a neck or back
injury by doing the following:

(1) 
Tell the casualty not
to move.

(2) 
If a back injury is
suspected, place padding under the
natural arch of the casualty’s
back.

(3) 
If a neck injury is
suspected, place a roll of cloth
under the casualty’s neck and put
boots (filled with dirt, sand,
etc.) or rocks on both sides of
the head.

c.
Check the casualty’s arms
and legs for open or closed
fractures.

(1) 
Check for open
fractures.

(a)  
Look for bleeding.

(b)  
Look for bone
sticking through the skin.

(2) 
Check for closed
fractures.

(a)  
Look for swelling.

(b)  
Look for
discoloration.

(c)  
Look for deformity.

(d)  
Look for unusual body
position.

d.
If a fracture to an arm
or leg is suspected, stop the
evaluation and begin treatment.  (See Task 081-831-1034.)

6.   Check for burns.

a.
Look carefully for
reddened, blistered, or charred
skin. 
Also check for singed
clothes.

b.
If burns are found, stop
the evaluation and begin treatment. 
(See Task 081-831-1007.)

7.   Check for head injury.

a.
Look for the following
signs and symptoms:

(1) 
Unequal pupils.

(2) 
Fluid from the ear(s),
nose, mouth, or injury site.

(3) 
Slurred speech.

(4) 
Confusion.

(5) 
Sleepiness.

(6) 
Loss of memory or
consciousness.

(7) 
Staggering in walking.

(8) 
Headache.

(9) 
Dizziness.

(10) 
Vomiting.

(11) 
Paralysis.

(12) 
Convulsions or twitches

b.
If a head injury is
suspected, continue to watch for
signs that would require
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (see
Task 081-831-1042), treatment for
shock (see Task 081-831-1005), or
control of bleeding (see Task
081-831-1033).

8.   Seek medical aid. 
Seek medical assistance as soon
as possible, but do not interrupt
treatment. 
If possible, send another
person to find medical aid.

Evaluation Preparation: 

Setup:  Prepare a
"casualty" for the soldier to
evaluate by simulating one or more wounds or
conditions. 
Simulate the wounds using a war
wounds moulage set, casualty simulation kit,
or other available materials. 
You can coach a "conscious
casualty" to show signs of such
conditions as shock or head injury and to
respond to the soldier’s questions about
location of pain or other symptoms of
injury. 
However, you will have to cue the
soldier during evaluation of an
"unconscious casualty" as to
whether the casualty is breathing and
describe the signs or conditions, such as
shock, as the soldier is making the checks.

Brief
Soldier: 
Tell the soldier to do, in order, all
necessary steps to evaluate the casualty and
identify all wounds and/or conditions. 
Tell the soldier to tell you what
first aid action (give mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation, bandage the wound, etc.) he
would take, but that no first aid is to be
performed unless a neck or back injury is
found.

Performance
Measures

GO

NO
GO

1.   Checked for responsiveness.

2.   Checked for breathing, if necessary.

3.   Checked for bleeding.

4.   Checked for shock.

5.   Checked for fractures and immobilized neck or back
injuries, if found.

6.   Checked for burns.

7.   Checked for a head injury.

8.   Sought medical aid.

9.   Performed all necessary steps in sequence.

10.
Identified all wounds
and/or conditions.

Evaluation
Guidance: 
Score the soldier GO if all
performance measures are passed. 
Score the soldier NO GO if any
performance measure is failed. 
If the soldier scores NO GO, show
what was done wrong and how to do it
correctly.

References

 

Required

Related

 

 

FM
4-25.11