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The Role and Use of Military History

 

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THE ROLE AND USE OF MILITARY HISTORY

What is Military History?

The record of all activities of all armed forces (including armies, navies, and air forces) in war and peace.

WHY DO YOU STUDY MILITARY HISTORY?

HOW DO YOU STUDY MILITARY HISTORY?

VERY CAREFULLY AND METHODICALLY

Activities Included in the Study of Military History

Battles & Campaigns

Strategy & Tactics

Doctrine & Training

Organizations

Logistics

Military & Society

Weapons & Technology

Military Leaders

STUDY CAUSE AND EFFECT

TO DIRECT AND CONTROL FUTURE EVENTS

STUDY: IN WIDTH

OBSERVE EVENTS OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME TO OBSERVE CHANGE

STUDY: IN DEPTH

STUDY IN ENOUGH DETAIL TO GET BEHIND ANY GENERALIZATIONS

Using Military History

Learn from past experience

Understand military concepts

Study lives of soldiers in the past

Understand doctrinal evolution

Broaden knowledge of military subjects

Understand leadership issues

Learn about strategy & tactics

STUDY: IN CONTEXT

ARMIES REFLECT BOTH THEIR ERA AND THEIR SOCIETY

"I am convinced that much more emphasis should be placed on history. The purpose of history is to learn how human beings react when exposed to the danger of wounds or death..." General George S. Patton, Jr.

"Nothing is done in war, except by calculation. Every enterprise should be conducted according to a system. Chance alone can never bring success." Napoleon

"A man's greatest pleasure is to defeat his enemies, to drive them before him, to take from them that which they possessed, to see those whom they cherished in tears, to ride their horses, to hold their wives. I forbid you to show mercy to my enemies. Leave nothing but uninhabited ruins, neither a cat nor a dog."

Genghis Khan

HISTORY SHARPENS JUDGMENT

Critical Thinking Skills-

Based on Study of Operational Military History

HISTORY IMPROVES PERCEPTION

Critical Thinking Skills-

Based on Study of Institutional Military History

HISTORY BROADENS PERSPECTIVES

Critical Thinking Skills-

Based on Study of Biographical Military History

Misusing Military History

History provides understanding, not proof.

History provides insight, not analogy.

METHODOLOGIES

The Ten Threads of Continuity.

Battle Analysis.

TEN THREADS OF CONTINUITY

19TH CENTURY

1800----1850-----1899

Military Theory & Doctrine -----+------------------------------------------>

Military Professionalism----------+------------------------------------------>

Generalship-------------------------+------------------------------------------>

Strategy------------------------------+------------------------------------------>

Tactics-------------------------------+------------------------------------------>

Logistics-----------------------------+------------------------------------------>

Technology--------------------------+----------------------------------------->

Political Factors---------------------+----------------------------------------->

Social Factors------------------------+----------------------------------------->

Economic Factors-------------------+----------------------------------------->

Military Theory & Doctrine

Ideas about War.

Doctrine = Generally accepted body of practices that govern Organization, Training, and Fighting.

Military Theorists: Those who THINK deeply about war and INFLUENCE others. They SEEK solutions, CREATE frameworks & ADVANCE new concepts.

Military Doctrine

PROVIDES THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE CONCEPT OR IDEA AND THE ACTUAL APPLICATION OF THE IDEA

Military Professionalism

Attitude or state of mind.

Military professional is an expert in the management of violence.

Functions of the professional army include organizing, equipping, training, planning and directing forces, in and out of combat.

Military Professionalism

Military Professionals share a body of specialized knowledge.

The study of Military History is essential to Military Professionalism.

Defined in Samuel Huntington's The Soldier and the State.

Expertise:

Responsibility:

Corporateness :

Generalship

Art of command high levels.

Functions include Forming, Organizing, Equipping, and Training armies and/or major portions of them.

Involves the detailed Strategical, Tactical and Logistical planning to insure success of the mission. Entails Leadership and Management.

Strategy

Preparation for and the waging of war.

Dynamic in nature and has evolved with the complexities of weapon technology.

Grand Strategy: Coalition level

National Strategy: Similar to Grand

Military Strategy: Derived from National.

Tactics

The Preparation and actual conduct of Combat on the battlefield.

The employment of units in combat , the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other to utilize their full potential.

Close connection with Technology, Logistics and Strategy.

Logistics & Administration

Supply, Transportation, Evacuation and Hospitalization, Service and Personnel Management.

Relationship between the state's Economic capacity and its capability for supporting military forces.

In the last century has developed into one of the dominant factors of warfare.

Technology

The Application of science to war.

Accounts for new weapons and the entire range of new equipment.

The Industrial Revolution caused whole chains of technological advances in the fields of weapons, transportation, communication, construction and medicine.

Political Factors

Characteristic elements or actions of governments that affect warfare.

Provide the forces and trends that shape warfare and the goals for which wars are fought.

Difficult to distinguish the military objective from the political goal. Often political goals drive military goals.

Social Factors

Human relationships that affect warfare are social factors.

Includes concepts, such as, popular attitudes, revolution, militarism, psychological warfare, amd combat psychology.

Combatants have aimed at inflicting Total War on a nation's people.

Economic Factors

Elements that affect warfare, such as, Production, Distribution, and Consumption of the resources of the state.

Economic warfare possible through blockade.

Different types of economies affect warfare.

Interrelationship of Factors

Political, Social and Economic Factors are all interrelated.

They are so complex that studying each one separately is impossible.

These forces provide the foundation of national power.

TIDY SOLUTIONS TO BATTLE ON COMPUTER PRINTOUTS IS A DELUSION- HISTORICALLY ALL WARS WERE VERY UNTIDY.

MILITARY HISTORY PROVIDES THE ARMY'S INSTITUTIONAL MEMORY.

MILITARY HISTORY PROVIDES A GUIDE TO HOW TROOPS BEHAVE IN BATTLE.

THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR PROVIDE A SENSE OF DIRECTION.

MILITARY HISTORY REVEALS THE PATTERNS, TRENDS & RELATIONSHIPS NECESSARY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE.

DOCTRINE PROVIDES THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE CONCEPT OR THEORY AND THE APPLICATION OF THAT THEORY.

THE ROLE OF MILITARY HISTORY IS TO PROVIDE A METHOD TO LOOK BACK IN ORDER TO LOOK AHEAD.

TASK
Integrate Historical Awareness and Critical Thinking Skills Derived from Military History Methodologies into the Training and Education of Self and Subordinate Leaders.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE

Apply knowledge of military history and battle analysis to the professional development of self and subordinate leaders.

Role and Use

LTG George S. Patton, Jr.:

"To be a successful soldier, you must know history."

Role and Use

Learn from past experience

Understand military concepts

Study lives of soldiers in the past

Understand doctrinal evolution

Broaden knowledge of military subjects

Understand leadership issues

Learn about strategy & tactics

Basic Battle Analysis

Military History and the

Conduct of Battle

Basic Battle Analysis

What is Battle Analysis?

A method used by the U.S. Army to provide a systematic approach to the study of battles, campaigns, and other operations.

Basic Battle Analysis

Define the subject.

Set the stage.

Describe the action.

Draw lessons and insights.

Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:

Step 1 -- Define the Subject

Basic Battle Analysis

Pick a subject appropriate to the level of operations of interest.

Select a topic related to the types of lessons desired.

Basic Battle Analysis

Quantity and type of sources (books, articles, and other).

Quality of sources (content, bias, and intent).

BATTLE ANALYSIS
METHODOLOGY

STEP I

EVALUATE THE HISTORICAL RESOURCES

Determine the research sources

Evaluate the research sources

Basic Battle Analysis

Battle Analysis:

Step 2 -- Set the Stage

Basic Battle Analysis

Type of conflict.

Objectives of the principal antagonists.

Military systems.

Previous experience of forces.

Basic Battle Analysis

Context

Objectives

Additional factors (alliances, tactics, doctrine, and personalities)

Basic Battle Analysis

Alternatives

Area of Operations

Weather

Terrain

Basic Battle Analysis

Basic Battle Analysis

State missions of opposing forces

Describe initial disposition of forces

Describe opening moves

Detail major phases

State outcome

Basic Battle Analysis

Why did events turn out the way they did?

What is relevant about this study to current operations?

Basic Battle Analysis

Who won? Who lost?

What were the constants that affected the outcome?

Basic Battle Analysis

Principles of War

Tenets of Airland Operations

Battlefield Operating Systems

Principles of War

Objective

Offensive

Mass

Economy of Force

Maneuver

Unity of Command

Surprise

Security

Simplicity

Dynamics of Combat Power

MANEUVER

FIREPOWER

PROTECTION

LEADERSHIP

INFORMATION

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