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Nerve Agents

All about different Nerve Agents

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NERVE AGENTS

GA (Tabum)

GA (Tabum)

Respiratory lCt50 (mild): 85mg-min/m³

Respiratory lCt50 (severe): 110mg-min/m³

300mg-min/m³ for resting person

1-10 minutes to effect

Respiratory LCT50: 400mg-min/m³

10-15 minutes to effect

Percutaneous LD50: 1 to 1.5 mg per person

Rate of detoxification: Low, essentially cumulative

GA (Tabum)

Agent Persistency Information (in hours)

GA (Tabum)

Chemical and Physical Properties

GA (Tabum)

Other Data

GA (Sarin)

Nerve agent

Primary usage: Quick-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract, but also can enter through skin and digestive trace

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, drooling, sweating, nausea, vomiting, cramps, jerking, staggering, involuntary defecation and urination, twitching, headache, confusion, drowsiness, coma, convulsions, death

Treatment: Use of nerve agent antidote (atropine and 2-PAM chloride); pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) increase survivability when antidote is used after exposure

GB (Sarin)

Threshold eye effects 1mg-min/m³

Respiratory lCt50 (mild): 15mg-min/m³

1-10 minutes to effect

Respiratory lCt50 : 55mg-min/m³

Respiratory LCT50: 100mg-min/m³ for resting person

2-15 minutes to effect

Percutaneous lCt50: 8,000mg-min/m³

Percutaneous LD50: 12,000mg-min/m³

2-15 minutes to effect

Rate of detoxification: Low, essentially cumulative

GB (Sarin)

C F

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GB (Sarin)

Physical state: Colorless liquid

Odor: Almost none when pure

Boiling point: 220° to 246°c at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -56 °C

Flash point: Nonflammable

Heat of vaporization: 80 cal/g

Volatility: 22,000 mg/m³ at 25°C

Decomposition temp: Complete decomposition after 2 1/2 hours at 150°C

Stability in storage: Fairly stable in steel containers at 65°. Stability improves with increasing purity

Molecular weight: 162.13

GB (Sarin)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

- Clothing gives off G-agents for approximately 30 minutes after contact with

vapor

Decontamination:

- Flush eyes with vapor immediately

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate equipment using calcium hypochlorite (HTH),

Super tropical bleach (STB), household bleach, caustic soda, dilute alkali

solutions, or decontaminating solution number 2 (DS2)

- Use steam and ammonia or hot soapy water in confined area

GD (Soman)

Nerve agent

Primary usage: Quick-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract, but also can enter through skin and digestive trace

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, drooling, sweating, nausea, vomiting, cramps, jerking, staggering, involuntary defecation and urination, twitching, headache, confusion, drowsiness, coma, convulsions, death

Treatment: Use of nerve agent antidote (atropine and 2-PAM chloride); pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) increase survivability when antidote is used after exposure to nerve agent; after a few minutes antidotes are not as effective for GD poisoning as they are for other nerve agents

GD (Soman)

Threshold eye effects 0.16mg-min/m³

Respiratory lCt50 : 25mg-min/m³

1-10 minutes to effect

Respiratory LCt50 : 70mg-min/m³

1-15 minutes to effect

Percutaneous LCt50: 10,000mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Low, essentially cumulative

GD (Soman)

C F

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GD (Soman)

(U) Thickened GD is mainly a vapor hazard, although GD forms large droplets that provide a greater concentration reaching the ground and a greater contact hazard than the from which have not thickened

GD (Soman)

Physical state: Colorless liquid

Odor: Fruity, camaphor when impure

Boiling point: 198° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -42 °C

Flash point: N/A

Heat of vaporization: 72.4 cal/g

Volatility: 3,900 mg/m³ at 25°C

Decomposition temp: Stabalized-200hrs@130°C Unstabalized-4hrs@130°C

Stability in storage: Less stable than GA or GB

Molecular weight: 182.178

GD (Soman)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

- Clothing gives off G-agents for approximately 30 minutes after contact with

vapor

Decontamination:

- Flush eyes with vapor immediately

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate equipment using calcium hypochlorite (HTH),

Super tropical bleach (STB), household bleach, caustic soda, dilute alkali

solutions, or decontaminating solution number 2 (DS2)

- Use steam and ammonia or hot soapy water in confined area

GF

Nerve agent

Primary usage: Quick-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract, but also can enter through skin and digestive trace

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, drooling, sweating, nausea, vomiting, cramps, jerking, staggering, involuntary defecation and urination, twitching, headache, confusion, drowsiness, coma, convulsions, death

Treatment: Use of nerve agent antidote (atropine and 2-PAM chloride); pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) increase survivability when antidote is used after exposure

GF

Respiratory lCt50 : 20mg-min/m³

Respiratory LCt50 : 75mg-min/m³

Percutaneous lCt50: 7,5000mg-min/m

Percutaneous LCt50: 15,000mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Low

GF

C F

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GF

Physical state: Liquid

Odor: Sweet, musty, peaches

Boiling point: 239° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -30 °C

Flash point: 94°

Heat of vaporization: 90.5 cal/g

Volatility: 438 mg/m³ at 25°C

Stability in storage: Stable in steel at normal temps.

Molecular weight: 180.2

GF

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

- Clothing gives off G-agents for approximately 30 minutes after contact with

vapor

Decontamination:

- Flush eyes with vapor immediately

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate equipment using calcium hypochlorite (HTH),

Super tropical bleach (STB), household bleach, caustic soda, dilute alkali

solutions, or decontaminating solution number 2 (DS2)

- Use steam and ammonia or hot soapy water in confined area

VX

Nerve Agent

Primary Usage: Quick-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, but can also enter through skin and respiratory tract and digestive tract. VX has low volatility, and liquid droplets on the skin do not evaporate, thereby increasing absorption. VX by percutaneous route is estimated to be more than 100 times as toxic as GB, VX by inhalation is estimated to be twice as toxic as GB

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, drooling, nausea, vomiting, cramps,. Involuntary defecation and urination, twitching, jerking, staggering, headache, confusion, drowsiness, coma, convulsions, death

Treatment: Use of nerve agent antidote (atropine and 2-PAM chloride); pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) increase survivability when antidote is used after exposure to nerve agent

VX

Threshold eye effects: 0.04mg-min/m³

Respiratory lCt50 : 50 mg-min/m³

1-10 minutes to effect

Respiratory LCt50: 100mg-min/m³

4-10 mins to effect

Percutaneous LCt50: 115mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Low, essentially cumulative

VX

C F

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VX

Physical state: Amber colored, oily

Odor: None

Boiling point: 298° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -39 °C

Flash point: 159°C

Heat of vaporization: 78.2 cal/g

Volatility: 10.5 mg/m³ at 25°C

Decomposition temp: Half life-36hrs@150°C 1.6hours@200°C

4min@250°C

36sec@295°C

Stability in storage: Relatively stable

Molecular weight: 267.38

VX

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

- Clothing gives off G-agents for approximately 30 minutes after contact with

vapor

Decontamination:

- Flush eyes with vapor immediately

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

V�³

Nerve Agent

Primary Usage: Quick-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract, but can also enter through skin and digestive track

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, drooling, nausea, vomiting, cramps,. Involuntary defecation and urination, twitching, jerking, staggering, headache, confusion, drowsiness, coma, convulsions, death

Treatment: Use of nerve agent antidote (atropine and 2-PAM chloride); pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) increase survivability when antidote is used after exposure to nerve agent

V�³

Rate of detoxification: Low, essentially cumulative

Eye toxicity: Extremely toxic

Skin toxicity: Extremely toxic by skin absorption

does not injure skin but rapidly

penetrates

Time to effect: Rapid

V�³

Physical state: Amber colored, oily liquid

Odor: None

Boiling point: 256° at 760 mm HG

Heat of vaporization: 67.2 cal/g

Volatility: 75.5 mg/m³ at 25°C

Molecular weight: 211.2

VX

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

- Clothing gives off G-agents for approximately 30 minutes after contact with

vapor

Decontamination:

- Flush eyes with vapor immediately

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

BLISTER AGENTS

(VESICANTS)

H (Sulfur Mustard)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Inflammation of the eyes, inflammation of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, and lung tissue; redness of the skin, blister or ulceration; more "at ease" attitude, vomitting; and fever, beginning about same time as skin reddening

H (Sulfur Mustard)

Eye injury (ECt50) 100-200mg-min/m³

Respiratory lCt50 : 200mg-min/m³

4-6 hours to effect

Respiratory LCt50 : 1500mg-min/m³

4-24 hours to effect

COOL/DRY SUBJECT

Percutaneous lCt50: 10,000mg-min/m

Percutaneous LCt50: 10,000mg-min/m³

HOT/WET SUBJECT

Percutaneous lCt50: 150 mg-min/m³

Percutaneous LCt50: 10,000 mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification Very low; even very small, repeated exposures oh HD are cumulative in their effect

H (Sulfur Mustard)

Physical state: Oily, colorless to amber liquid

Odor: Garlic or horseradish smell

Boiling point: 227.8° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 14.45 °C

Flash point: 105°C

Heat of vaporization: 94 cal/g

Volatility: 610 mg/m³ at 25°C

Decomposition temp: 149°C to 177°C

Stability in storage: Stable in steel or aluminum cont.

Molecular weight: 159.08

H (Sulfur Mustard)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

HD (Distilled Mustard)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Inflammation of the eyes, inflammation of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, and lung tissue; redness of the skin, blister or ulceration; more "at ease" attitude, vomitting; and fever, beginning about same time as skin reddening

HD (Distilled Mustard)

Eye injury (ECt50) 100-200mg-min/m³

Respiratory lCt50 : 200mg-min/m³

4-6 hours to effect

Respiratory LCt50 : 1500mg-min/m³

4-24 hours to effect

Percutaneous LCt50: 1,500mg-min/m³

4-24 hours to effect

Rate of detoxification Very low; even very small, repeated exposures oh HD are cumulative in their effect

HD (Distilled Mustard)

Sandy terrain Grassy terrain

** **

** **

** **

** **

12 4.8

6.33 2.53

2.8 1.12

2 0.8

1 0.4

1 0.40

HD (Distilled Mustard)

Physical state: Oily, colorless to amber liquid

Odor: Garlic or horseradish smell

Boiling point: 227.8° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 14.45 °C

Flash point: 105°C

Heat of vaporization: 94 cal/g

Volatility: 610 mg/m³ at 25°C

Decomposition temp: 149°C to 177°C

Stability in storage: Stable in steel or aluminum cont.

Molecular weight: 159.08

HD (Distilled Mustard)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

HN-1 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Redness of the skin, causing irritation and itching, blisters in red area, irritation of the nose and throat, hoarseness progressing to loss of voice, persistent cough , fever, labored breathing, bronchial pneumonia after 24 hours; severe diarrhea ; nausea; vomiting

HN-1 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Eye injury (lct50) 200mg-min/m³

Respiratory LCt50 1500mg-min/m³

Vapor lCt50 9000mg-min/m³

Vapor LCt50: 20,000 mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification Not detoxified; cumulative

HN-1 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Physical state: Oily, colorless to yellow

Odor: Garlic or horseradish smell

Boiling point: 194° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -34 °C

Flash point: N/A

Heat of vaporization: 77 cal/g

Volatility: 127 mg/m³ at -10°C

Decomposition temp: Decomposes before boiling

Stability in storage: Adequate for use in munitions.

Molecular weight: 170.08

HN-1 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

- Clothing gives off G-agents for approximately 30 minutes after contact with vapor

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

HN-2 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Redness of the skin, causing irritation and itching, blisters in red area, irritation of the nose and throat, hoarseness progressing to loss of voice, persistent cough , fever, labored breathing, bronchial pneumonia after 24 hours; severe diarrhea ; nausea; vomiting

HN-2 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Respiratory LCt50 : 3000mg-min/m³

Vapor ICt50: 2,500 - 9,000mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Not detoxified; cumulative

HN-2 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Physical state: Dark liquid

Odor: Fruity, soft soap

Boiling point: 75° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 65-60 °C

Flash point: N/A

Heat of vaporization: 78.8 cal/g

Volatility: 3,580 mg/m³ at 25°C

Decomposition temp: N/A

Stability in storage: Not stable

Molecular weight: 156.07

HN-2 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

HN-3 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Redness of the skin, causing irritation and itching, blisters in red area, irritation of the nose and throat, hoarseness progressing to loss of voice, persistent cough , fever, labored breathing, bronchial pneumonia after 24 hours; severe diarrhea ; nausea; vomiting

HN-3 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Respiratory LCt50 : 1500mg-min/m³

Percutaneous ICt50: 2,500mg-min/m³

Percutaneous LCt50: 10,000mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Not detoxified; cumulative

HN-3 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Physical state: Oily liquid

Odor: None when pure

Boiling point: 256° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -3.7 °C

Flash point: N/A

Heat of vaporization: 74 cal/g

Volatility: 13 mg/m³ at 0°C

Decomposition temp: N/A

Stability in storage: Stable for bomb use..

Molecular weight: 204.54

HN-3 (Nitrogen Mustard)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

Mustard-T Mixture (HT)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Redness of the skin, causing irritation and itching, blisters in red area, irritation of the nose and throat, hoarseness progressing to loss of voice, persistent cough , fever, labored breathing, bronchial pneumonia after 24 hours; severe diarrhea ; nausea; vomiting

Mustard-T Mixture (HT)

Eye Injury ECt50 : 100-200mg-min/m³

Respiratory LCt50: 200mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Very low; evern very small, repeated exposures are cumaltive in their effects however

Mustard-T Mixture (HT)

Physical state: Clear, yellowish, highy viscous

Odor: Garlic or horseradish smell

Boiling point: 228° at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 0.0 to 1.3 °C for 60:40 mixture

Flash point: 105°C

Heat of vaporization: N/A

Volatility: 831 mg/m³ at 185°C

Decomposition temp: 165°C to 185°C

Stability in storage: Pressure develops in steel

Molecular weight: 189.4

Mustard-T Mixture (HT)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2, HTH, household bleach

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

L (Lewisite)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Immediate burning sensation in the eyes; permanent loss of sight if not decontaminated with3 minutes with large amounts of water; immediate and strong stinging sensation to the skin; reddening of the skin starts with in 30 minutes; blistering does not appear until after about 13 hours; skins burns are mush deeper than those caused by HD

L (Lewisite)

Eyes effects (ED) : 300mg-min/m³ very susceptible to low concentrations; 1,500mg-min/m³ produces severe and probably permanent corneal damage to the eyes.

Respiratory lCt50: 1,200-1,500mg-min/m³

Percutaneous ICt50: +1,500mg-min/m³

Percutaneous LCt50: 100,000mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: None

L (Lewisite)

Physical state: Colorless to brown

Odor: Like geraniums, little odor when pure

Boiling point: 190°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 18°- 0.1C

Flash point: None

Heat of vaporization: 58 cal/g

Volatility: 1060 mg/m³ at 0°C, 4,480 mg/m³ at 20°C, 8,620 mg/m³ at 30°C

Decomposition temp: Above 100°C

Stability in storage: Stable in steel or glass containers

Molecular weight: 207.35

L (Lewisite)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2, HTH, household bleach

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL)

Blister agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. H damages any tissue it contacts: severity directly relates to the concentration of the agent and the duration of contact with skin

Symptoms: Immediate stinging sensation in the skin; reddening of the skin starts with in 30 minutes; blistering does not appear until after about 13 hours; skins burns are mush deeper than those caused by HD; fluid in chest cavity and lungs; increase papillary permeability which causes shock and death because of loss of fluid from the bloodstream

Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL)

LCt50 (Respiratory): 1,500mg-min/m³

LCt50 (Percutaneous):: 10,000mg-min/m³

ICt50 (eye injury): 200mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: None

Eye and skin toxicity: Very high

Time to effect: Produces immediate stinging of the skin and redness within 30 minutes; blistering delayed about 3 hours

Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL)

Physical state: Liquid

Odor: Garlic like

Boiling point: Indefinite but below190°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -42°C for plant purity HL -25.4°C when pure

Flash point: N/A

Heat of vaporization: Immediate between the heats of vaporization of the components

Volatility: 240 mg/m³ at -11°C, 2,730 mg/m³ at 20°C, 10,270 mg/m³ at 30°C

Decomposition temp: Above 100°C

Stability in storage: Stable in laquered steel containers

Molecular weight: 186.4

Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8A1 alarms

- M8 and M9 paper

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- STB, fire, or DS2, or caustic soda

- Use M258A1, M258 or M291 skin decontaminating kit for liquid agent on the skin

- Decontaminate individual equipment with M280 individual equipment decontamination kit

CHOKING AGENTS

Phosgene Oxime (CX)

Choking agent

Primary usage: Rapid acting casualty agent

Enters body through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Immediate severe burning sensation; intense pain; feeling of numbness; swelling; immediate pain varying from mild prickling to almost intolerable pain resembling a severe bee sting; violent irritation to mucous membranes of eyes and nose, skins becomes pale and red rings surron the area; wheal forms in about 30 minutes; blanched area turns brown in about 24 hours; scabs form in about a week; scab usually falls off about three weeks later; healing can take longer than two months

Phosgene Oxime (CX)

Respiratory irritation threshold: 1mg-min/m³

Unbearable respiratory irritation: 3mg-min/m³

Respiratory LCt50: 3,200mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Unknown

Phosgene Oxime (CX)

Physical state: Liquid above 39°C solid below 35°C

Odor: Intense, penetrating, disagreeable, and violently irritating

Boiling point: 129°C at 760 mm HG(with decomposition)

Freezing point: 35°- 40°C

Flash point: N/A

Heat of vaporization: 101 cal/g at 40°C

Volatility: 1,800 mg/m³ at 20°C, 76,0000 mg/m³ at 40°C,

Decomposition temp: Below 128°C

Stability in storage: Extremely unstable in presence of traces of metal or other impurities, even traces of iron chloride may cause explosion. Pure material is stable only for one to two months in glass vessels at 20°C, and is most stable in aromatic solvents

Molecular weight: 113.9

Phosgene Oxime (CX)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256A1 and M8 alarms

Protection required: MOPP 4

Decontamination:

- Use large amounts of water

- Because of the rapid reaction of CX with the skin, decontamination will not be effective after pain occurs

- Nevertheless, decontaminate as rapidly as posible by flushing the area with large amounts of water to remove any agent that has not reacted with the skin

Phosgene (CG)

Choking agent

Primary usage: Delayed -action casualty agent

Enters body through respiratory tract

Very small dosages of phosgene are extremely corrosive to lung tissue

Symptoms: Initially only minor irritation to the eyes and throat; after latent period of 4-8 hours, discoloration of the lips, break out in a cold, sticky, sweat, long lasting lesions on lung, quantities of fluid escape from bloodstream into lungs, literally drowning the victim who dies from a lack of oxygen

Phosgene (CG)

lCt50: 1,600 mg-min/m³

3-12 hours to effect during which time lungs are filling with fluid)

LCt50: 3,200mg-min/m³

3-24 hours to effect (during which time lungs are filling with liquid)

Rate of detoxification: Not detoxified, cumulative

Phosgene (CG)

Physical state: Colorless gas

Odor: New mown grass or hay

Boiling point: 7.6°C at 760 mm

Freezing point: -128°C

Flash point: N/A

Heat of vaporization: 59 cal/g at

Volatility: 4,300,000 mg/m³ at 7.6°C, 2,200,000mg/m³ at -10°C, 528,000mg/m³ at -40°C,

Decomposition temp: 800°C

Stability in storage: Stable in steel containers if CG is dry

Molecular weight: 98.92

Phosgene (CG)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2

Protection required: Protective mask

Decontamination:

- Confined areas, aeration

- Not required in the field

Persistency

-Short; vapor may persist for some time in low places under calm or light winds and stable atmospheric conditions ( approximately 30 minutes in summer; and 3 hours at -20 degrees

Diphosgene (DP)

Choking agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty

Enters primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Initially only minor irritation to eyes and throat; after latent period of 4-8 hours, discoloration of the lips, breaking out in a cold, sticky sweat, systemic damage, especially to liver and kidneys, long lasting lesions on lungs develop, quantities of fluid escape from bloodstream into lungs, literally drowning the victim who dies from a lack of oxygen.

Those who survive may suffer trauma and suddenly expire, or they may suffer after effects in the following years

Diphosgene (DP)

lCt50: 1,600mg-min/m³

3-12 hours to effect (during which lungs are filling up with fluid)

LCt50: 3,200mg-min/m³

3-24 hours to effect (during which lungs are filling with fluid)

Detoxification Rate: Not detoxified, cumulative

Diphosgene (DP)

Physical state: Colorless gas

Odor: New-mown hay, grass, corn

Boiling point: 127°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 57°

Volatility: 12,000 mg/m³ at 0°C, 45,0000 mg/m³ at 20°C, 270,000 mg/m³ at 51.7 °C

Decomposition temp: 300°C

Stability in storage: Only stable in glass

Molecular weight: 197.85

Diphosgene (DP)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, Odor

Protection required:

-Protective mask

Decontamination:

- Confined areas, aeration

- Not required in the field

Persistency

-Short; vapor may persist for some time in low places under calm or light winds and stable atmospheric conditions ( approximately 30 minutes in summer; and 3 hours at -20 degrees

Arsine (SA)

Choking agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action casualty agent

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Headache; uneasiness; chills; nausea; vomiting; damages blood, causing anemia

SA is a carcinogen

Arsine (SA)

lCt50: 2,500 mg-min/m³

Effects are delayed from 2 hours as to much as 11 days

LCt50: 5,000 mg-min/m³

Estimated that 2mg of SA per kilogram of body weight would be lethal to humans

Detoxification Rate: Not rapid enough to be of importance

Arsine (SA)

Physical state: Colorless gas

Odor: Mild, garlic like

Boiling point: -62.5°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -116°

Volatility: 20,900,000mg/m³ at 0°C, highest volatility found amongst compounds considered for tactical use as c chemical agents

Decomposition temp: 280°C

Stability in storage: Unstable in uncoated metal containers

Molecular weight: 77.93

Arsine (SA)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, Odor

Protection required:

-Protective mask

Decontamination:

- Not required

Persistency

-Extremely short

BLOOD AGENTS

AC (Hydrogen Cyanide)

Primary usage: Quick action casualty agent suitable for surprise attack

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Flushed skin, weakness, headaches, nausea, confusion, dizziness, unconsciousness, convulsions, violent contraction of blood vessels, severe shock, end to breathing

AC (Hydrogen Cyanide)

Vapor LCt50: 2,500 mg-min/m³

Respiratory LCt50: 5,000 mg-min/m³

30 seconds to 15 minutes till effect

Detoxification Rate: Low essentially cumulative

AC (Hydrogen Cyanide)

(U) Agent is widely available; can be readily synthesized in large quantities and is commercially available (some states use AC for capitol punishment)

(U) Fixed munitions should not be stored for period of time since an explosive polymer may form within the canister

AC (Hydrogen Cyanide)

Physical state: Colorless liquid;evaporates quickly

Odor: Bitter almonds or peach kernels

Boiling point: 25.7°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -13.3°

Volatility: 1,080,000mg/m³ at 25°C, 441,000mg/m³ at 0 °C, 37,500mg/m³ at -40 °C

Decomposition temp: Above 65.5°C

Stability in storage: Unstable except when very pure, forms explosive polymer on long standing, will stabilize with addition of small amounts of phosphoric acid or sulfur dioxide

Molecular weight: 27.03

Heat of vaporization 2332 cal/g

AC (Hydrogen Cyanide)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256, M256A1, and M8 Alarms

Protection required:

-Protective mask. Liquid AC can penetrate the skin, but because liquid AC is not likely to be encountered in the field, protective clothing is required only in unusual situations

Decontamination:

- None required under field conditions

Persistency

-Short; the agent is highly volatile, and in the gaseous state it dissipates quickly in the air

Antidotes/Treatments

-Thiosulfate or other substances that react with the blood may be of some use, but only if administered very soon after exposure

CK (Cyanogen Chloride)

Primary usage: Quick action casualty agent used for degradation of canisters or filter elements in protective mask

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Eye and respiratory irritation, weakness, headache, disorientation, nausea, vomiting, pinkness of skin, loss of consciousness, coma,end of respiration, and death in 15 minutes

CK (Cyanogen Chloride)

Median concentration

detectable by tearing: 12 mg/m³

Respiratory lCt50: 7,000 mg-min/m³

30 minutes toe 1 hour to effect

Respiratory LCt50: 11,00 mg-min/m³

1-15 minutes till effect

Detoxification Rate: Rapid

CK (Cyanogen Chloride)

Physical state: Colorless liquid;evaporates quickly

Odor: None

Boiling point: 25.7°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: -13.3°C

Volatility: 1,080,000mg/m³ at 25°C, 441,000mg/m³ at 0 °C, 37,500mg/m³ at -40 °C

Flash point: 18 °C

Decomposition temp: Above 65.5°C

Stability in storage: Stable at 65 °C for 30 days. Stabilized material can be stored up to 65°C. Will polymerize to form the solid cyanuric chloride which is corrosive. Impurities promotes polymerization; may explode

Molecular weight: 27.03

Heat of vaporization 2332 cal/g

CK (Cyanogen Chloride)

Means of detection in the field:

- M18A2, M256, M256A1, and M8 Alarms

Protection required:

-Protective mask. CK will break or penetrate a protective mask canister or filter element more readily than most other agents.

Decontamination:

- None required under field conditions

Persistency

-Short; the agent is highly volatile, and in the gaseous state it dissipates quickly in the air

Antidotes/Treatments

-Thiosulfate or other substances that react with the blood may be of some use, but only if administered very soon after exposure

INCAPACITATING AGENTS

BZ

Incapacitating agent

Primary usage: Delayed-action incapacitating agent

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract or digestive tract

Symptoms: Fast heartbeat, drk skin and lips, blurred near vision, flushed skin, urinary retention, constipation, sedation progression to stupor and interference with ordinary activity, extreme excitement, delusions, hallucinations, high doses completely destroy the ability to perform any military task, untreated casualty requires from three to four days to reach full recovery

BZ

LCt50: High estimated to be 200,000mg- min/m³

lCt50: 112mg-min/m³

Inhalation threshold dose: 2mg-min/m³ individual

Rate of detoxification: 36-45 hours

Time to effect: Delayed; usual onset of symptoms occur approximately two hours after aerosol exposure. Depending on inhaled or ingested dosage, symptoms, may appear at any time from 30 minutes to 20 hours after exposure, effects from skin contact may appear 36 hours later

BZ

Physical state: White, crystalline solid 20 °C

Odor: None

Boiling point: 320°C at 760 mm HG

Melting point: 164-167°C

Volatility: 1,080,000mg/m³ at 25°C, 441,000mg/m³ at 0 °C, 37,500mg/m³ at -40 °C

Flash point: 18 °C

Decomposition temp: 170 ° C

Stability in storage: Stable in most materials

Molecular weight: 337.41

Heat of vaporization 62 cal/g

BZ

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask.

Decontamination:

-Complete cleansing of the skin with soap and water at earliest opportunity

-If washing is not possible, use the M258A1, M258, or M291

-Decontaminate bulk quantities of BZ with caustic alcohol solutions

TEAR AGENTS

Bromobenzylcyanide (CA)

Tear agent

Primary usage: obsolete

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Burning sensation of the mucous membranes and severe irritation and tearing of the eyes with acute pain in the forehead

Bromobenzylcyanide (CA)

LCt50: Estimated 8,000 to 11, 2mg- min/m³

lCt50: About 30mg-min/m³

Minimum irritant concentration: 0.3mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Rapidly detoxifies at the low concentrations ordinarily encountered

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Instantaneous

Bromobenzylcyanide (CA)

Physical state: Yellow solid or liquid

Odor: Sour or rotting fruit

Boiling point: 242°C at 760 mm HG

Melting point: 25.2°C

Volatility: 17mg/m³ at 0°C, 115mg/m³ at 20°C

271mg/m³ at -40 °C

Flash point: None

Decomposition temp: 60 ° C

Stability in storage: Stable in glass containers

Molecular weight: 196.0

Heat of vaporization 79.5 cal/g

Bromobenzylcyanide (CA)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask.

Decontamination:

-Decontaminate clothing with steam or by boiling

-Twenty-percent alcoholic caustic soda is effective on material, but may damage it

-Porous surfaces, such as earth, they are very difficult to decontaminate

Persistency

-Depends on munitions used

-Heavily splashed liquid last one to two day under average conditions

Chloroactophenone (CN)

Tear agent

Primary usage: Training and riot control

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Burning sensation of the eyes and upper respiratory passages, tearing, tingling sensation, irritation, burning, and pain of the nose and throat, burning on tender areas of skin especially areas wet by perspiration

Chloroactophenone (CN)

LCt50: 7,000mg-min/m³

lCt50: 80mg-min/m³

Minimum irritant concentration: 0.3mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Rapidly effects disapper in minutes

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Instantaneous

Chloroactophenone (CN)

Physical state: Solid powder

Odor: Fragrant similar to apples

Boiling point: 248°C at 760 mm HG

Melting point: 54°C

Volatility: 17mg/m³ at 0°C, 115mg/m³ at 20°C

271mg/m³ at -40 °C

Flash point: None

Decomposition temp: Stoable to boiling point

Stability in storage: Stable

Molecular weight: 154.59

Heat of vaporization 98 cal/g

Chloroactophenone (CN)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask.

Decontamination:

-Aeration in field

-Strong soda ash solution or alcoholic caustic soda in enclosed areas

-Porous surfaces, such as earth, they are very difficult to decontaminate

Persistency

-Short, because the compound is disseminated as an aerosol

O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)

Tear agent

Primary usage: obsolete

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Extreme burning of the eyes accompanied by copious flow of tears, coughing, difficulty in breathing, tightness of the chest, involuntary closing of the eyes, stinging or burning on moist skin, heavy mucous formation in the nose with sinus and nasal drip, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, severe skin irritation and blistering

O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)

LCt50: 61,000 mg-min/m³

lCt50: 10 to 20 mg-min/m³

Eye Effects: 1 to 5 mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: quite rapid; 5-10 minutes

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Very rapid (max effect in 20-60 seconds)

O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)

Physical state: Solid, powder or liquid

Odor: Pungent, pepper like

Boiling point: 315°C at 760 mm HG

Melting point: 95°C

Volatility: 0.71mg/m³ at 0°C

Flash point: 197° C

Decomposition temp: Unknown

Stability in storage: Stable

Molecular weight: 188.50

Heat of vaporization 53.6 cal/g

O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask. and field clothing secured at the neck, wrist and ankles

Decontamination:

-Affected personnel should move to an uncontaminated area and face the wind

-Use soap and water on contaminated equipment

Persistency

-Varies depending upon amount of contamination and form of CS

-Aerosol has little residual hazard

Chloropictrin (PS)

Tear agent

Primary usage: Not authorized for military use

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Nose and throat irritation, coughing, vomiting; tearing; lung damage, severe skin burns, blisters lesions

Chloropictrin (PS)

lCt50: 2,000mg-min/m³

Minimum irritant concentration: 9mg-min/m³ for ten min.

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Very rapid

Chloropictrin (PS)

Physical state: Colorless, oily liquid

Odor: Stinging pungent odor

Boiling point: 112°C at 760 mm HG

Melting point: 25.2°C

Volatility: 165,000mg/m³

Flash point: Not flammable

Decomposition temp: Above 400 ° C

Stability in storage: Unstable liquid

Molecular weight: 196.0

Heat of vaporization 79.5 cal/g

Chloropictrin (PS)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask.

Decontamination:

-Neutral or slightly basic solutions with sulfides such as sodium sulfide

-Do not use acidic solutions for decontamination; acids reduce PS or CX, a blister agent

Persistency

-Approximately 6 hours in vegetated fields

Dibenz-(b,f)-1,4-oxazepine(CR)

Tear agent

Primary usage: Riot control agent dispersed as spray

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Immediate and sever stinging of the sin, eyes, nose, and throat, eye pain, discomfort, and excessive tearing, painful sensitivity, to strong light or temporary blindness, nasal irritation , coughing, sneezing, nasal drip, sting or burning sensation with increased irritation on moist skin, nausea and vomiting

Dibenz-(b,f)-1,4-oxazepine(CR)

lCt50: 0.5mg-min/m³

Threshold effects: 0.002mg-min/m³ (respiratory tract)

0.004mg-min/m³ (eyes)

Rate of detoxification: 15 to 30 minutes after removal

Eye effects up to 6 hours

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Very rapid

Dibenz-(b,f)-1,4-oxazepine(CR)

Physical state: Yellow powder in solution

Odor: Burning sensation

Boiling point: 335°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 72°C

Volatility: 0.63mg/m³ at 0°C,

Flash point: 188° C

Decomposition temp: 60 ° C

Stability in storage: Stable in aqueous, heated acidid and strong alkali solutions

Molecular weight: 192.25

Dibenz-(b,f)-1,4-oxazepine(CR)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask. and field clothing secured at wrist, neck, and ankles

Decontamination:

-Remove from equipment by wiping, shoveling, or sweeping

-Do not us standard decontaminants that contain chlorine, CR may become more potent

-Aeration is sufficient to decontaminate personnel, dissipation occur in 5-10 minutes

Persistency

-Under suitable conditions, CR can persist on certain surfaces (especially porous material) for up to 60 days

VOMITING AGENTS

Diphenylchloroarsine (DA)

Vomiting agent

Primary usage: Not authorized for military use

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Irritation of eyes and the mucous membranes; viscous discharge from the nose similar to that caused by a cold, sneezing and coughing; severe headache, acute pain and tightness in the chest; nausea and vomiting

Effect last for 30 minutes after person leaves contaminated atmosphere

At high concentrations effects may last up to several hours

Diphenylchloroarsine (DA)

LCt50: 15,000mg-min/m³

lCt50: 12mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: One to two hours

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Rapid, with one-three minutes

Diphenylchloroarsine (DA)

Physical state: Colorless crystals when pure

Odor: No odor

Boiling point: 333°C at 760 mm HG

Melting point: 44.5°C

Volatility: 45mg/m³ at 45°C

Flash point: 350°C

Decomposition temp: 300° C

Stability in storage: Stable when pure

Molecular weight: 264.5

Heat of vaporization 56.6 cal/g

Diphenylchloroarsine (DA)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask.

Decontamination:

-None required in field

-Caustic soda or chlorina used for gross contamination in enclosed spaces

Persistency

-Short, because compound is disseminated as an aerosol

-Heavily splashed liquid last one to two day under average conditions

Diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)

Vomiting agent

Primary usage: Not authorized for military use

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Irritation of eyes and the mucous membranes; viscous discharge from the nose similar to that caused by a cold, sneezing and coughing; severe headache, acute pain and tightness in the chest; nausea and vomiting

Effect last for 30 minutes after person leaves contaminated atmosphere

At high concentrations effects may last up to several hours

Diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)

LCt50: 10,000mg-min/m³

lCt50: 30mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: One to two hours

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Rapid, intolerable at 30 secs.

Diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)

Physical state: Solid

Odor: Garlic and bitter almond smell

Boiling point: 350°C at 760 mm HG

Melting point: 35°C

Volatility: 2.8mg/m³ at 45°C

Flash point: Low

Decomposition temp: 300° C

Stability in storage: Stable at all ordinary temp.

Molecular weight: 255.0

Heat of vaporization 71.1 cal/g

Diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask.

Decontamination:

-None required in field

-Bleach or DS2 for gross contamination in enclosed spaces

Persistency

-Short, because compound is disseminated as an aerosol

Adamsite (DM)

Vomiting agent

Primary usage: Not authorized for military use

Enters body primarily through respiratory tract

Symptoms: Irritation of eyes and the mucous membranes; viscous discharge from the nose similar to that caused by a cold, sneezing and coughing; severe headache, acute pain and tightness in the chest; nausea and vomiting

Effect last for 30 minutes after person leaves contaminated atmosphere

At high concentrations effects may last up to several hours

Adamsite (DM)

LCt50: 11,000mg-min/m³

lCt50: 22-150mg-min/m³

Rate of detoxification: Rapid in small amounts

Eye and skin toxicity: Irritating; not toxic

Time to effect: Rapid, one minute to incapacitate

Adamsite (DM)

Physical state: Light yellow to green crystal

Odor: No odor, but irritating

Boiling point: 410°C at 760 mm HG

Freezing point: 195°C

Volatility: Negligible

Flash point: None under usual conditions

Decomposition temp: 300° C

Stability in storage: Stable when pure

Molecular weight: 277.57

Heat of vaporization 56.6 cal/g

Adamsite (DM)

Means of detection in the field:

- None.

Protection required:

-Protective mask.

Decontamination:

-None required in field

-Bleaching powder or DS2 used for gross contamination in enclosed spaces

Persistency

-Short, because compound is disseminated as an aerosol