dcsimg
This website is not affiliated with the U.S. government or military.

081-831-9000 (SL2) - Implement Preventive Medicine Measures

Standards: Briefed personnel on the three reasons soldiers are vulnerable to disease. Trained personnel on the seven major components of the medical threat to field forces. Trained soldiers on the seven individual preventive medicine measures necessary to prevent disease and nonbattle injuries. Taught the Army's tobacco use policies. Ensured selected unit personnel received field sanitation team training on the team's eight areas of responsibility.

Conditions: You are a unit leader. Your unit is deployed to the field. You have the equipment authorized by your table of organization and equipment (TOE), field sanitation equipment and supplies, and a field sanitation team (FST) for every unit subject to deployment in a field environment.

Note. Company aidmen (91W), organic or attached to deployed units, normally fulfill the requirement for the FST.

Standards: Briefed personnel on the three reasons soldiers are vulnerable to disease. Trained personnel on the seven major components of the medical threat to field forces. Trained soldiers on the seven individual preventive medicine measures necessary to prevent disease and nonbattle injuries. Taught the Army's tobacco use policies. Ensured selected unit personnel received field sanitation team training on the team's eight areas of responsibility.

Performance Steps

Note.  Once FST personnel are selected and trained, they can be delegated the responsibility for training other members of the unit.

1.   Brief personnel on the three reasons a soldier is vulnerable to disease.

a. Harshness of the environment such as deserts, jungles, and the Arctic.

b. Reduced natural defenses due to exposure and fatigue.  Examples are-

(1)  Climatic changes.

(2)  Sleep deprivation.

(3)  Irregular meals.

c. Breakdowns in basic sanitation, such as the lack of clean water and proper waste disposal.

2.   Train personnel on the seven major components of the medical threat to field forces.

a. Heat.  Types of heat injuries.

(1)  Heat cramps.

(2)  Heat exhaustion.

(3)  Heatstroke - a medical emergency.

b. Cold.  Types of cold injuries.

(1)  Chilblain.

(2)  Immersion foot.

(3)  Trench foot.

(4)  Frostbite.

(5)  General hypothermia.

c. Arthropods (biting insects).

(1)  Diseases transmitted directly by arthropods.

(a)   Mosquitoes-malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and encephalitis.

(b)   Some ticks, as well as mosquitoes-encephalitis.

(c)   Sand flies-sand fly fever.

(d)   Body lice-epidemic typhus.

(e)   Hard ticks-Lyme disease.

(2)  Diseases transmitted by insects associated with rodents.

(a)   Fleas-plague and endemic typhus.

(b)   Mites-scrub typhus.

d. Diarrhea.  Diarrheal disease is contracted from contaminated food and water.

(1)  Waterborne diarrheal disease.

(a)   Typhoid fever.

(b)   Cholera.

(c)   Traveler's diarrhea.

(d)   Hepatitis A.

(2)  Food-borne diarrheal diseases.

(a)   Traveler's diarrhea.

(b)   Cholera.

(c)   Salmonellosis.

(d)   Hepatitis.

e. Non-NBC chemical hazards.

(1)  Examples of non-NBC chemical hazards.

(a)   Carbon monoxide.

(b)   Hydrogen chloride.

(c)   Bore/gun gases.

(d)   Solvents, greases, insecticides, and oils.

(2)  Harmful effects of non-NBC chemical hazards.

(a)   Skin irritation.

(b)   Asphyxiation (choke, suffocate).

(c)   Central nervous system depression.

(d)   Death.

f.  Noise hazards.

(1)  Examples of noise hazards.

(a)   Weapons.

(b)   Aircraft.

(c)   Most Army vehicles and generators.

(2)  Harmful effects of hazardous noise exposures.

(a)   Temporary loss of hearing-lasts minutes to hours.

(b)   Permanent loss of hearing.

(c)   Blast over pressure effects.

g. Other medical threats to field forces.

(1)  Skin disease-common in extremely dry or humid climates.

(2)  Altitude sickness-locations above 9,000 feet.

(3)  Harmful animals - poisonous reptiles, arthropods, and mollusks and coelenterates (such as jellyfishes and corals).

(4)  Tobacco use.

(5)  Poor medical threat intelligence.

3.   Train personnel on the seven individual preventive medicine measures (PMM) necessary to prevent disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI).

Note.  Once personnel have received the training on PMM, leaders should check periodically for application of PMM as appropriate for their situation.

a. Prevent heat injuries.

(1)  Drink plenty of water.

(2)  Observe work and/or rest cycles.

(3)  Eat all meals to replace salt.

(4)  Recognize the risk of mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) for body armor and armored vehicles.

(5)  Modify your uniform.

b. Prevent cold injuries.

(1)  Drink plenty of water and warm nonalcoholic fluids.

(2)  Do NOT sleep in a vehicle with the engine running or in an enclosed area where an open fire is burning.

(3)  Wear your uniform properly.

(a)   Wear clothing as the commander directs.

(b)   Keep clothing clean and dry.  (Avoid fuel spills.)

(c)   Avoid overheating by removing excess clothing when possible.

(d)   Wear clothing in loose layers.  (Avoid tight-fitting clothing.)

(4)  Avoid loss of body heat.

(a)   Keep moving when possible.  (Exercise big muscles, toes, feet, fingers, and hands.)

(b)   Avoid standing directly on cold, wet ground.

(c)   Avoid smoking. (Smoking decreases blood flow to the skin.)

(d)   Eat all meals to maintain energy.

(5)  Protect feet and hands by wearing gloves or mittens, changing socks frequently, and avoiding skin contact with snow, fuel, or bare metal.

(6)  Use the buddy system to spot frostbite on exposed skin.

c. Protect against biting insects.

(1)  Use insect repellent according to label directions and precautions.

(2)  Wear your uniform as the commander directs.

(3)  Keep your uniform clean.

(4)  Follow medical advice; take antimalarial pills when directed and use insect powder, cream, and/or shampoo when prescribed by medical personnel.

(5)  Protect yourself at night.

(a)   Use a bed net when sleeping.

(b)   Use aerosol insecticide inside bed net.

d. Protect against diarrhea.

(1)  Follow water sanitation guidelines.

(a)   Fill canteen with treated water, when possible.

(b)   Treat water (when treated water is not available) with iodine tablets, chlorine ampules, or boil water for 5 to 10 minutes (if iodine or chlorine is not available).  (Boiling water for only 15 seconds will help.)

(2)  Follow food sanitation guidelines.

(a)   Use approved food sources.

(b)   Wash your mess kit carefully, in a mess kit laundry and with treated water.

(c)   Wash hands after using the latrine and before touching food or food contact surfaces.

(d)   Bury waste or otherwise properly dispose of waste to prevent spread of germs by flies.

e. Prevent injuries from non-NBC chemical hazards.

(1)  Prevent carbon monoxide poisoning by-

(a)   Running engines outside.

(b)   Using natural ventilation or tailpipe extension systems to dispose of exhaust fumes.

(c)   Never using engine exhaust for heat.

(2)  Prevent hydrogen chloride (and other propellant exhaust) injuries by-

(a)   Positioning yourself upwind of rocket systems.

(b)   Holding your breath (after the blast) until the cloud passes.

(3)  Prevent injuries from bore/gun gases (from conventional weapons).

(a)   Use on-board ventilation systems.

(b)   Keep the bore evacuator well maintained on large weapon systems.

(4)  Prevent injuries from solvents, greases, and oils (liquid chemicals).

(a)   Minimize worker exposure by substituting less harmful chemicals for toxic chemicals.

(b)   Use personal protective equipment and practice good personal hygiene.

(c)   Comply with replacement and medical surveillance physical examinations to detect early signs of occupational disease.

f.  Prevent noise hazard injuries.

(1)  Use protective devices (earplugs, ear canal caps, or earmuffs).

(2)  Use vehicle headgear such as helicopter crew helmets and armored vehicle crew helmets.

(3)  Keep hearing protection devices clean to avoid ear infections.

(4)  Avoid noise and/or limit the time in noise hazardous areas.

g. Prevent other DNBI (individual PMM).

(1)  Protect against skin disease.

(a)   Protect skin from elements.

(b)   Use sunscreen, if necessary.

(c)   Keep skin as clean as possible.

(2)  Protect against altitude sickness.

(a)   Acclimatize to new elevations.

(b)   Increase aerobic exercise prior to exposure.

(c)   Follow medical advice.

(3)  Avoid harmful animals.

(a)   Avoid habitats of harmful animals.

(b)   Do NOT attempt to capture or make pets of harmful animals.

(4)  Refrain from tobacco use.

4.   Explain the Army's tobacco use policies.

a. Effects of tobacco use.

b. Mission readiness.

c. Army policies.

(1)  Army's Healthy #1 People 2000 Goal: reduce military smokers to 20 percent.

(2)  Army's Healthy #2 People 2000 Goal: reduce smokeless tobacco use to 4 percent for the 12-to-24 year age group.

(3)  Regulatory requirements under AR 600-63.

5.   Ensure training of personnel as members of a field sanitation team (FST) is provided if appropriate.

Note.  Training of FST members enables unit commanders to provide for limited control of insects, proper disinfection of water, and safe food supplies.  Training of personnel as FST members will be provided by supporting medical resources.

a. FST members, when no organic medical personnel are available.

(1)  Two soldiers are selected to receive FST training.

(2)  One soldier must be an NCO.

(3)  Neither will have less than six months of unit time remaining.

(4)  These soldiers should receive training from PM personnel in accordance with AR 40-5.

Note.  All unit leaders are expected to perform FST tasks.

b. FST tasks and/or responsibilities.  The unit FST performs the following tasks in the unit area:

(1)  Checks unit water supplies.

(2)  Inspects unit water containers and unit water trailers.

(3)  Inspects unit field food operations for application of PMM to prevent contamination.

(4)  Conducts limited control of insects.

(5)  Inspects unit waste disposal for compliance with accepted PMM.

(6)  Conducts limited control of rodents.

(7)  Provides training for individual PMM training in the unit.

(8)  Advises unit leaders on construction and maintenance of field waste disposal and personal hygiene devices.

Evaluation Preparation:

Setup: Evaluate each soldier individually during a field training exercise (FTX) or normal training session. Use the location, weather conditions, and duration of the FTX as the scenario to base your evaluation questions around. If the evaluation is conducted during normal training sessions, create a scenario as the basis for your evaluation questions.

Brief Soldier: Tell the soldier he will be evaluated on his ability to answer preventive medicine measure questions pertaining to the training scenario provided.

Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1.   Identified the three reasons soldiers are vulnerable to disease.

--

--

2.   Identified the seven major components of the medical threat to field forces.

--

--

3.   Identified preventive medicine measures used in the prevention of various diseases and nonbattle injuries.

--

--

4.   Identified the Army's tobacco use policies.

--

--

5.   Identified requirements for FST manning and training.

--

--

Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the soldier NO GO if any performance measure is failed. If the soldier scores NO GO, show what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.

References

 

Required

Related

 

 

AR 40-5

 

 

AR 600-63

 

 

FM 4-25.12

 

 

FM 21-10