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052-192-1042 (SL1) - Perform Self-Extraction from a Mined Area

Standards: Self-extract from a mined area, by foot or from a vehicle, under the following conditions without causing personal injury or mine detonation. When footprints are clearly visible, when footprints are not clearly visible (stepping-stone and lane technique), and from a vehicle. Locate, mark, and bypass each trip wire and mine within the area probed. Remove enough soil to confirm the presence of a mine. Report the mined area information to higher headquarters.

Conditions: You are in an area containing buried mines and trip wire-activated mines, given a probing device, a trip wire feeler, personal protective equipment, marking material, and a vehicle.

Note: A mine detector is not available.

Standards: Self-extract from a mined area, by foot or from a vehicle, under the following conditions without causing personal injury or mine detonation. When footprints are clearly visible, when footprints are not clearly visible (stepping-stone and lane technique), and from a vehicle. Locate, mark, and bypass each trip wire and mine within the area probed. Remove enough soil to confirm the presence of a mine. Report the mined area information to higher headquarters.

 

Performance Steps

1.   Take immediate action on observed indicators or confirmation of a mine.

Note: The acronym for stop, assess, note, draw back, inform (SANDI) is used to remember the sequence of events for extraction. Stop and gain control of yourself. Assess the situation of mines or booby traps and personnel. Note the situation for future reference. Draw back to the last known safe area. Self-extraction to the nearest safe area may be referred to as draw back. Inform higher headquarters of the situation. The letters from the acronym will be reinforced throughout this task and represented with bold letters.

a. Stop immediately and gain control of yourself.

(1)  Do not move your feet if you are on foot.

(2)  Remain in the vehicle.

(3)  Warn other elements operating in the area, and advise higher elements of the situation for possible support with extraction.

Note In an emergency mine situation involving a single casualty, call for help. If the casualty is conscious, establish communication with the victim. Instruct the soldier to remain still and administer self-help first aid. Reassure him that help is coming. The use of radio communications equipment is acceptable. While there are certain mines that can be fuzed to detonate on a specific radio frequency, these mines are extremely rare and unlikely to be encountered within a minefield. The life saving advantage of using a radio to call for help far outweighs the threat of radio frequency-activated mines. Submit a medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) report.

b. Assess the situation.

(1)  Determine the nearest safe area not containing mines.

(2)  Determine the shortest route to the safe area.

(3)  Determine if in the middle of a mined area.

c. Note the situation.

(1)  Make notes about the mine that you see.

(a)   Describe the shape, and draw pictures if necessary (square, round, conical, circular, rectangular, concave, dome, or cylindrical) (Figure 052-192-1042-1).

 

 


Figure 052-192-1042-1. Samples of Mine Shapes

 

 

(b)   State the color (light green, dark green, brown, black, sand, camouflage, gray, metallic, natural wood, olive, blue, or white).

 

(c)   Annotate the size.

 

(d)   Annotate the material type. Most mines are made of plastic, plastic casting, wood, sheet metal, cast iron, metal alloys, concrete, Bakelite ™, and cast explosive.

 

(2)  Indicate the number of mines.

 

(3)  Annotate the terrain considerations.

 

(4)  Indicate the location.

 

Note 1: Stay where you are, if possible, when support is available. If support is delayed, consider probing a safe area to sit.

Note 2: Go to performance step 2 to perform self-extraction when footprints are not clearly visible (without a vehicle) or to perform casualty evacuation using the lane technique. Go to performance step 2b to perform the stepping-stone technique (no casualties). Go to performance step 3 to perform self-extraction from a vehicle. Go to performance step 4 to perform self-extraction when footprints are clearly visible (without a vehicle). Go to performance step 5 to perform actions after detecting a trip wire. Go to performance step 6 to perform actions after detecting a possible mine while probing.

Note 3: Consider clearing an area to place excess equipment, such as a ruck sack and load bearing equipment, if it is going to take a long time to reach a safe area.

 

2.   Perform self-extraction when footprints are not clearly visible (without a vehicle).

 

Note 1: Carry a personal extraction kit. For example, as a minimum, carry 50 markers, pins, or poker chips; a trip wire feeler; and a probe (nonmetallic preferred). Use of a nonmetallic probe is recommended. When a nonmetallic probe is not available, probing tools can be made of any material as long as they are rigid enough to push through the soil, long enough to penetrate the ground at least 3 inches at a 30° angle, and small enough so that a soldier can continue the probing drill for several hours. Magnetic and nonmagnetic metal tools, such as bayonets, screwdrivers, and penknives are suitable for probing when a nonmetallic probe is not available.

Note 2: The prone position is the safest position to probe from because it reduces the casualty-causing effects of an accidental blast. The lane technique is normally performed for casualty evacuation.

Note 3: Use the stepping-stone technique when there are no casualties. This technique provides speed by minimizing the area probed and cleared for extraction. A probing soldier will not adopt the prone position while performing this technique. Go to performance step 2b for the stepping-stone technique.

 

a. Assume the prone position.

 

(1)  Squat down without touching your knees to the ground.

 

(2)  Use the look-feel-probe procedure to clear the area.

 

(a)   Look around for high and low trip wires. Look for mine indicators on the ground, to include mine fuzes, mine parts, or disturbed ground.

 

(b)   Feel for trip wires using the trip wire feeler. Push the trip wire feeler forward along the ground from your feet to your front left, then front center, and then front right. Raise the trip wire feeler in a gentle upward sweeping action to above your head height.
Feel the ground around your feet with your fingers using a slow sideways sweep, feeling for exposed mine fuze prongs or other mine parts.

 

Note 1: A trip wire feeler can be made of a light, wooden rod or stick; a light-gauge wire; plastic rods; or anything else that will allow you to feel a trip wire without activating it. The trip wire feeler must be a minimum of 24-inches long and a maximum of 36-inches long. The trip wire feeler should be stiff enough to be held straight out to the front, but not so stiff as to come in contact with a trip wire without you being able to feel the wire.

Note 2: Go to performance step 5 for performance actions taken after detecting a trip wire.

 

(c)   Probe the area as far forward as comfortable.
Hold the probe in either hand, with the palm up, allowing the blunt end of the probe to extend beyond the cup of the palm.
Apply just enough pressure on the probe to sink it slowly into the ground at a 30° angle and to a depth of 3 inches (Figure 052-192-1042-2).

 

 


Figure 052-192-1042-2. Probing Technique Using a Suitable Probe

 

 

DANGER:

USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN PROBING. IF YOU PROBE AT AN ANGLE OF MORE THAN 30°, THE PROBE TIP MAY DETONATE A MINE.

 

(d)   Probe every 1 inch across the required extraction width path (0.6 meter [24 inches] for self extraction, 1 meter for evacuating a casualty using the individual-carry technique, and 2 meters for evacuating a casualty using a litter), then move forward 1 inch and stagger (offset) the probe indentations from the previously probed row (Figure 052-192-1042-3).

 

 


Figure 052-192-1042-3. Probing Across the Required Extraction Width Path

 

 

Note: Continue the probing technique and ensure that the probe indentations in each row are offset from the previously probed rows, thus creating a diamond shape.

 

(3)  Kneel on the ground after the area is found to be clear, and continue probing forward until you can assume the prone position.

 

(4)  Continue the look-feel-probe procedure across the required extraction width path until you reach a safe area or the casualty.

 

Note: Go to performance step 6 for actions taken after detecting a possible mine.

 

(a)   Clear up to and under the casualty in case he is lying on a mine.

 

(b)   Clear and mark a 1-meter circumference around the casualty for individual-carry extraction or a 2-meter circumference for litter-carry extraction.

 

(c)   Remove the casualty out of the mined area.

 

(5)  Mark the area for mines.

 

(6)  Inform higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report (Figure 052-192-1042-4).

 

 

 

Line

 

1

Date-Time Group:

DTG item was discovered.

2

Reporting Activity:

UIC and grid location.

3

Contact Method:

Radio frequency, call sign, POC and telephone number.

4

Type of Ordnance:

Dropped, projected, placed, or thrown. If available, supply the subgroup. Give the number of items, if more than one.

5

NBC Contamination:

Be as specific as possible.

6

Resources Threatened:

Report any equipment, facilities, or other assets that are threatened.

7

Impact on Mission:

Provide a short description of your current tactical situation and how the presence of the UXO affects your status.

8

Protective Measures:

Describe any measures you have taken to protect personnel and equipment.

9

Recommended Priority:

Recommend a priority of response by EOD technicians or engineers.

Figure 052-192-1042-4. UXO Spot Report

 

    

 

b. Use the stepping-stone technique (Figure 052-192-1042-5).

 


Figure 052-192-1042-5. Stepping Stone Technique

 

 

Note: Go to performance step 5 for actions taken after detecting a trip wire. Go to performance step 6 for performance actions taken after detecting a possible mine.

 

(1)  Clear individual stepping-stone areas to step into by using the look-feel-probe procedure.

 

(2)  Probe from a squatted position an area of 18 inches in diameter to your front to allow for both feet to stand in the area. The gap between stepping-stones should be no more than 12 inches.

 

(3)  Step into the cleared area and reorient towards the previously determined safe area.

 

(4)  Mark each stepping-stone perimeter or center.

 

(5)  Continue the look-feel-probe procedure during the stepping-stone technique until a safe area is reached.

 

Note: The look-feel-probe procedure is performed the same as previously mentioned except the area probed is 18 inches in diameter.

 

(6)  Mark the area for mines.

 

(7)  Inform higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report.

 

3.   Perform self-extraction from a vehicle.

 

a. Stop immediately.

 

b. Radio the situation to higher headquarters, and remain in the vehicle.

 

c. Extract from the rear of the vehicle after all communication efforts have failed, and walk inside the visible tire track to the last known safe area.

 

CAUTION: Tracked vehicle tracks may also be followed, but care must be taken as small antipersonnel mine fuzes have been known to be missed by the gaps in the track shoes. These mines pose a threat to personnel walking inside the vehicle track marks.

 

Note: Go to performance step 5 for actions taken after detecting a trip wire. Go to performance step 6 for performance actions taken after detecting a possible mine while probing.

 

d. Perform the look-feel-probe procedure from the vehicle to the last known safe area if the tracks are not clearly visible.

 

e. Probe an area to step in from the vehicle before making contact with the ground.

 

f.  Mark the area for mines.

 

g. Inform higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report.

 

4.   Perform self-extraction when footprints are clearly visible (without a vehicle).

 

WARNING: This self-extraction method is the least preferred and should only be performed when time is the determining factor

 

a. Turn around carefully within your footprints, and follow the exact footprints back along the path entered.

 

b. Follow the footprints until clear of the threat.

 

c. Mark the area for mines.

 

d. Inform higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report.

 

5.   Perform the following actions after detecting a trip wire:

 

Note: When a trip wire is located, stand still and visually inspect the wire along its length to identify the possible mine location and trip wire anchor point.

 

WARNING: Do not attempt to touch, move, or cut any trip wires that are found

 

a. Identify the shortest route to probe around the trip wire.

 

b. Probe the required extraction width path (0.6 meter [24 inches] for self extraction, 1 meter for evacuating a casualty using the individual-carry technique, and 2 meters for evacuating a casualty using a litter), 12 inches away from but along the line of the trip wire until you safely bypass the hazard.

 

c. Mark the line of the trip wire along the ground surface 12 inches before the trip wire (Figure 052-192-1042-6).

 


Figure 052-192-1042-6. Marking a Trip Wire

 

 


6.   Perform the following actions after detecting a possible mine while probing:

 

a. Stop probing when the probe encounters a solid object.

 

b. Investigate the solid object.

 

(1)  Start excavation 6 inches back from the suspect object.

 

(2)  Dig towards the suspected object using a suitable tool or your fingers in a sideward action.

 

Note: Periodically use the probe to verify the suspected mine location.

 

(3)  Stop excavation when you encounter the solid object.

 

(a)   Use two fingers from each hand to carefully remove the minimum amount of surrounding soil to confirm the object as a mine or not.

 

(b)   Mark the location with a marker 6 inches to the rear of the mine if the object is confirmed as a mine. Continue moving forward if the object is not a mine.

 

WARNING: Do not attempt to remove or disarm the mine. Report the hazard to higher headquarters.

 

(c)   Bypass the marked mine and continue moving towards the safe area.

c. Mark either one or both sides of the cleared path as you move forward.

 

Evaluation Preparation:  Provide the soldier with the items and information listed in the conditions. The soldier must perform the performance substeps in sequence to self-extract from a mined area. Performance steps 2 through 4 of this task indicate different situations while performing self-extraction.

 

Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1.   Took immediate action on observed indicators or confirmation of a mine.

--

--

a. Stopped immediately and gained control of himself.

 

 

(1)  Did not move his feet (no vehicle).

 

 

(2)  Remained in the vehicle.

 

 

(3)  Warned other elements operating in the area, and advised higher elements of the situation for possible support with extraction.

 

 

b. Assessed the situation.

 

 

(1)  Determined the nearest safe area not containing mines.

 

 

(2)  Determined the shortest route to the safe area.

 

 

(3)  Determined if in the middle of a mined area.

 

 

c. Noted the situation.

 

 

(1)  Made notes about the mine.

 

 

(a)   Described the shape, and drew pictures if necessary (square, round, conical, circular, rectangular, concave, dome, or cylindrical).

 

 

(b)   Stated the color (light green, dark green, brown, black, sand, camouflage, gray, metallic, natural wood, olive, blue, or white).

 

 

(c)   Annotated the size.

 

 

(d)   Annotated the material type. Most mines are made of plastic, plastic casting, wood, sheet metal, cast iron, metal alloys, concrete, Bakelite ™, and cast explosive.

 

 

(2)  Indicated the number of mines.

 

 

(3)  Annotated the terrain considerations.

 

 

(4)  Indicated the location.

 

 

2.   Performed self-extraction when footprints were not clearly visible (without a vehicle).

--

--

a. Assumed the prone position.

 

 

(1)  Squatted down without touching his knees to the ground.

 

 

(2)  Used the look-feel-probe procedure to clear the area.

 

 

(a)   Looked around for high and low trip wires. Looked for mine indicators on the ground, to include mine fuzes, mine parts, or disturbed ground.

 

 

(b)   Felt for trip wires using the trip wire feeler. Pushed the trip wire feeler forward along the ground from his feet to his front left, then front center, and then front right. Raised the trip wire feeler in a gentle upward sweeping action to above head height.
Felt the ground around his feet with his fingers using a slow sideways sweep, feeling for exposed mine fuze prongs or other mine parts.

 

 

(c)   Probed the area as far forward as comfortable.
Held the probe in either hand, with the palm up, allowing the blunt end of the probe to extend beyond the cup of the palm.
Applied just enough pressure on the probe to sink it slowly into the ground at a 30° angle and to a depth of 3 inches.

  

 

(d)   Probed every 1 inch across the required extraction width (0.6 meter [24 inches] for self extraction, 1 meter for evacuating a casualty using the individual-carry technique, and 2 meters for evacuating a casualty using a litter), then moved forward 1 inch and staggered (offset) the probe indentations from the previously probed row.

 

 

(3)  Kneeled on the ground after the area was found to be clear, and continued probing forward until he could assume the prone position.

 

 

(4)  Continued the look-feel-probe procedure across the required extraction width path until he reached a safe area or the casualty.

 

 

(a)   Cleared up to and under the casualty in case he was lying on a mine.

 

 

(b)   Cleared and marked a 1-meter circumference around the casualty for individual-carry extraction or a 2-meter circumference for litter-carry extraction.

 

 

(c)   Removed the casualty out of the mined area.

 

 

(5)  Marked the area for mines.

 

 

(6)  Informed higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report.

 

 

b. Used the stepping-stone technique.

 

 

(1)  Cleared individual stepping-stone areas to step into by using the look-feel-probe procedure.

 

 

(2)  Probed from the squatted position an area of 18 inches in diameter to his front to allow for both feet to stand in the area. The gap between stepping-stones was no more than 12 inches.

 

 

(3)  Stepped into the cleared area and reoriented towards the determined safe area.

 

 

(4)  Marked each stepping-stone perimeter or center.

 

 

(5)  Continued the look-feel-probe procedure during the stepping-stone technique until a safe area was reached.

 

 

(6)  Marked the area for mines.

 

 

(7)  Informed higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report.

 

 

3.   Performed self-extraction from a vehicle.

--

--

a. Stopped immediately.

 

 

b. Radioed the situation to higher headquarters, and remained in the vehicle.

 

 

c. Extracted from the rear of the vehicle after all communication efforts failed, and walked inside the visible vehicle tire track to the last known safe area.

 

 

d. Performed the look-feel-probe procedure from the vehicle to the last known safe area if the tracks were not clearly visible.

 

 

e. Probed an area to step in from the vehicle before making contact with the ground.

 

 

f.  Marked the area for mines.

 

 

g. Informed higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report.

 

 

4.   Performed self-extraction when footprints were clearly visible (without a vehicle).

--

--

a. Turned around carefully within his footprints, and followed the exact footprints back along the path entered.

 

 

b. Followed the footprints until clear of the threat.

 

 

c. Marked the area for mines.

 

 

d. Informed higher headquarters with noted information using the UXO spot report.

 

 

5.   Performed the following actions after detecting a trip wire:

--

--

a. Identified the shortest route to probe around the trip wire.

 

 

b. Probed the required extraction width path (0.6 meter [24 inches] for self extraction, 1 meter for evacuating a casualty using the individual-carry technique, and 2 meters for evacuating a casualty using a litter), 12 inches away from but along the line of the trip wire until he safely bypassed the hazard.

 

 

c. Marked the line of the trip wire along the ground surface 12 inches before the trip wire.

 

 

6.   Performed the following actions after detecting a possible mine while probing:

--

--

a. Stopped probing when the probe encountered a solid object.

 

 

b. Investigated the solid object.

 

 

(1)  Started excavation 6 inches back from the suspected object.

 

 

(2)  Dug towards the suspected object using a suitable tool or his fingers in a sideward action.

 

 

(3)  Stopped excavation when he encountered the solid object.

 

 

(a)   Used two fingers from each hand to carefully remove the minimum amount of surrounding soil to confirm the object as a mine or not.

 

 

(b)   Marked the location with a marker 6 inches to the rear of the mine if the object was a mine. Continued moving forward if the object was not a mine.

 

 

(c)   Bypassed the marked mine and continued moving towards the safe area.

 

 

c. Marked either one or both sides of the cleared path as he moved forward.

 

 

 

Evaluation Guidance:  Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the soldier NO GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If the soldier scores NO GO, show the soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.

 

References

 

Required

Related

 

 

FM 20-32

 

 

GTA 05-10-044

 

 

TC 20-32-5